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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of patients and events (n=383; June 1998 and June 2003). VF ventricular fibrillation, VT ventricular tachycardia, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

From: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: outcome and its predictors among hospitalized adult patients in Pakistan

Parameters Values Parameters Values
Age (mean; 95% CIs) 54 (52.2, 55.6) Immediate precipitating cause  
Gender    Metabolic 108 (28; 0.24, 0.33)
 Female 149 (39; 0.34, 0.43)  Cardiac (arrhythmias/ischaemia) 127 (33; 0.29, 0.38)
 Male 234 (61; 0.55,0.65)  Hypoxia/acute respiratory insufficiency 60 (16; 0.12, 0.2)
    Hypotension 40 (10; 0.08, 0.14)
Reason for admission    Others (sepsis/unknown) 48 (13; 0.09, 0.16)
 Cardiac 116 (30; 0.25,0.34) Location where code ran  
 Medical (non-cardiac) 198 (52; 0.47, 0.57)  Intensive care unit 128 (33; 0.28, 0.38)
 Surgical (non-cardiac) 54 (14; 0.10, 0.17)  Emergency room 70 (18; 0.15, 0.22)
 Trauma 9 (2; 0.0117, 0.04)  Special care unit 65 (17; 0.13, 0.21)
 Day care procedure 6 (1.6; 0.006, 0.03)  Coronary care unit 51 (13; 0.10, 0.17)
Pre-existing conditionsa    Floor 48 (13; 0.09, 0.16)
 Hypertension 163 (43)  Diagnostic and therapeutic area 11 (3; 0.09, 0.16)
 Ischaemic heart disease 142 (37)  Operation theatre 5 (1.3; 0.005, 0.03)
 Diabetes 137 (36)  Recovery room 2 (1; 0.0002, 0.02)
 End-stage diseases 62 (16) Initial rhythm at time of CPR  
 Hyperlipidaemia 45 (12)  Pulseless electrical activity 191 (50; 0.45, 0.54)
 Chronic renal failure 43 (11)  Asystole 114 (30; 0.25, 0.34)
 Malignancy 39 (10)  VF or VT 71 (19; 0.15, 0.23)
 COPD 22 (6)  Unknown 7 (2; 0.008, 0.04)
 Pulmonary tuberculosis 14 (4) Event monitored or witnessed or both  
    Monitored 323 (84; 0.80, 0.88)
CPR intervention in place at time of arresta     Unmonitored 60 (16; 0.12, 0.19)
 Intravenous access 358 (94) Event time intervals (mean; 95% CIs)  
 ECG monitoring 291 (76)  Interval from collapse to CPR start time 2 min (0.12, 4.34)
 Invasive airway 176 (46)  Interval from collapse to defibrillation 8 min (4.17, 11.47)
 Intra-arterial catheter 85 (22)  Interval from collapse to advanced airway achieved 11 min (7.53, 13.83)
 Implantable defibrillator 3 (1)  Interval from collapse to 1st dose of epinephrine 9 min (3.9, 14)
   Duration of CPR  
   ≤10 min 169 (44; 0.39, 0.49)
   >10 min 214 (56; 0.51, 0.61)
  1. aVariable with multiple responses