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Table 2 Univariate analysis of the factors associated with successful CPR (June 1998 and June 2003). PEA pulseless electrical activity, VF ventricular fibrillation, VT ventricular tachycardia

From: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: outcome and its predictors among hospitalized adult patients in Pakistan

Variables Survived >24 h (n=162) Died in <24 h (n=221) p value OR (95% CI)
  n (%) n (%)   
Age
 60 years or less 89 (55) 129 (58)   1.00
 More than 60 years 72 (45) 92 (42) 0.55 1.13 (0.75–1.7)
Gender
 Female 60 (37) 89 (40) 0.52 1.0
 Male 102 (63) 132 (60)   1.15 (0.755–1.739)
Reason for admission
 Non-cardiac 95 (59) 172 (78)   1.0
 Cardiac 67 (41) 49 (22) 0.00 2.48 (1.586–3.865)
Pre-existing conditions
 Two or more comorbidities 60 (37) 86 (39)   1.0
 No or one comorbidity 102 (63) 135 (61) 0.71 1.08 (0.713–1.645)
ECG monitoring before cardiac arrest
 Yes 108 (67) 183 (83)   1.0
 No 54 (33) 38 (17) 0.001 2.40 (1.49–3.88)
Advanced airway before cardiac arrest
 Yes 38 (23) 138 (62)   1.0
 No 124 (77) 83 (38) 0.001 5.42 (3.445-8.544)
Intra-arterial catheter before cardiac arrest
 Yes 15 (9) 70 (32)   1.0
 No 147 (91) 151 (68) 0.001 4.54 (2.488-8.296)
Immediate precipitating cause
 Non-cardiac 93 (57) 163 (74)   1.0
 Cardiac 69 (43) 58 (26) 0.001 2.08 (1.353-3.212)
Location where code ran
 ICU 22 (14) 106 (48) 0.001 1.0
 Emergency room 62 (38) 8 (4) 0.04 37.3 (15.68–88.9)
 CCU 16 (10) 35 (16) 0.04 2.203 (1.04–4.66)
 Monitored bed 27 (17) 38 (17) 0.001 3.423 (1.74–6.72)
 General bed 24 (15) 24 (11) 0.001 4.818 (2.32–9.98)
 Other areas (OR, D & T, others) 11 (6) 10 (4) 0.001 5.300 (2.01–14.0)
Initial rhythm at time of CPR
 Non-shockable (PEA/asystole) 126 (78) 186 (84)   1.0
 Shockable (VF/pulseless VT) 36 (22) 35 (16) 0.11 1.52 (0.90–2.547)
Event was monitored or not
 Event was monitored 123 (76) 200 (90)   1.0
 Event was not monitored 39 (24) 21 (10) 0.001 3.02 (1.697–5.372)
Duration of CPR
>10 min 66 (42) 143 (66)   1.0
≤10 min 92 (58) 73 (34) 0.001 2.73 (1.788–1.171)
Time shift
 Evening and night 109 (67) 140 (63)   1.0
 Morning 53 (33) 81 (37) 0.42 0.84 (0.548–1.288)
Interval between collapse and start of CPR (n=365)
 Start after 1 min 14 (9) 24 (11)   1.0
 Start within 1 min 138 (91) 189 (89) 0.53 1.25 (0.62–2.5)
Interval between collapse and defibrillation (n=124)
 Attempted after 3 min 18 (39) 42 (54)   1.0
 Attempted within 3 min 28 (61) 36 (46) 0.11 1.81 (0.9–3.8)
Interval between collapse and advanced airway (n=90)
 Secured after 5 min 24 (43) 16 (47)   1.0
 Secured within 5 min 32 (57) 18 (53) 0.69 1.18 (0.50–2.79)
Interval between collapse and 1st dose of epinephrine (n=174)
 Administered after 2 min 34 (46) 38 (38)   1.0
 Administered within 2 min 40 (54) 62 (62) 0.29 0.72 (0.39–1.32)