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Table 3 Univariate analysis of the factors associated with survival to discharge (June 1998 and June 2003). PEA pulseless electrical activity, VF ventricular fibrillation, VT ventricular tachycardia

From: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: outcome and its predictors among hospitalized adult patients in Pakistan

Variables Death (n=299) Hospital discharge (n=84) p value Univariate logistic regression
  n (%) n (%)   OR (95% CI)
Age
 60 years or less 173 (58) 45 (54)   1.00
 More than 60 years 126 (42) 38 (46) 0.55 1.16 (0.71–1.9)
Gender
 Female 121 (40.5) 28 (33)   1.0
 Male 178 (59.5) 56 (67) 0.23 1.36 (0.81–2.3)
Reason for admission
 Non-cardiac 231 (77) 36 (43)   1.0
 Cardiac 68 (23) 48 (57) 0.001 4.53 (2.72–7.54)
Pre-existing conditions
 No or one comorbidity 178 (59.5) 59 (70)   1.0
 Two or more comorbidities 121 (40.5) 25 (30) 0.76 1.60 (0.95–2.7)
ECG monitoring before cardiac arrest
 Yes 238 (80) 53 (63)   1.0
 No 61 (20) 31 (37) 0.002 2.3 (1.35–3.85)
Advanced airway before cardiac arrest
 Yes 163 (54.5) 13 (15.5)   1.0
 No 136 (45.5) 71 (84.5) 0.001 6.54 (3.5-12.33)
Intra-arterial catheter before cardiac arrest
 Yes 82 (27) 3 (4)   1.0
 No 217 (73) 81 (96) 0.001 10.2 (3.13-33.20)
Immediate precipitating cause
 Non-cardiac 217 (73) 39 (46)   1.0
 Cardiac 82 (27) 45 (54) 0.001 3.05 (1.85–5.03)
Location where code ran
 ICU 122 (41) 6 (7) 0.001 1.0
 Emergency room 26 (9) 44 (52) 0.001 34.4 (13.3–89.2)
 CCU 42 (14) 9 (11) 0.008 4.35 (1.5–13)
 Monitored bed 56 (19) 9 (11) 0.032 3. 3 (1.1–9.6)
 General bed 38 (13) 10 (12) 0.002 5.35 (1.8–15.7)
 Other areas (OR, D & T, others) 15 (5) 6 (7) 0.001 8.1 (2.32–28.50)
Initial rhythm at time of CPR
 Non-shockable (PEA/asystole) 249 (83) 63 (75)   1.0
 Shockable (VF/pulseless VT) 50 (17) 21 (25) 0.08 1.7 (0.93–2.96)
Event was monitored or not
 Event was monitored 262 (88) 61 (73)   1.0
 Event was not monitored 37 (12) 23 (27) 0.001 2.7 (1.48–4.8)
Duration of CPR
 10 min or more 174 (60) 35 (43)   1.0
 10 min or less 118 (40) 47 (57) 0.007 1.9 (1.21–3.25)
Time shift
 Morning 106 (35.5) 28 (33)   1.0
 Evening and night 193 (64.5) 56 (67) 0.71 1.09 (0.65–1.83)
Interval between collapse and start of CPR (n=365)
 Start after 1 min 30 (10) 8 (10)   1.0
 Start within 1 min 255 (90) 72 (90) 0.89 0.94 (0.41–2.15)
Interval between collapse and defibrillation (n=124)
 Attempted after 3 min 51(50.5) 9 (39)   1.0
 Attempted within 3 min 50 (49.5) 14 (61) 0.32 1.6 (0.63–3.99)
Interval between collapse and advanced airway (n=90)
 Secured after 5 min 22 (43) 18 (46)   1.0
 Secured within 5 min 29 (57) 21 (54) 0.77 1.13 (0.48–2.61)
Interval between collapse and 1st dose of epinephrine (n=174)
 Administered after 2 min 53 (39) 19 (51)   1.0
 Administered within 2 min 84 (61) 18 (49) 0.17 1.67 (0.8–3.47)