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Table 3 Controlled multivariate analysis to predict neuroimaging and hospital admission among emergency department patients with seizure (1993–2003)

From: Seizure visits in US emergency departments: epidemiology and potential disparities in care

Group Likelihood of neuroimaging Likelihood of hospital admission
Odds ratio (95% CI) Odds ratio (95% CI)
Age (per decade) 1.2 (1.2–1.3)a 1.2 (1.1–1.3)a
Sex
 Male (vs female) 1.0 (0.8–1.4) 1.0 (0.8–1.3)
Race
 Black (vs White) 0.6 (0.4–0.8)a 0.6 (0.4–0.8)a
 Other (vs White) 0.7 (0.3–1.7) 1.3 (0.5–3.1)
Ethnicity
 Hispanic (vs non-Hispanic) 0.6 (0.4–0.9)a 1.4 (0.8–2.3)
Urban status
 MSA (vs non-MSA) 2.0 (1.2–3.1)a 1.3 (0.8–2.0)
US region
 Northeast 1.0 1.0
 Midwest 1.9 (1.2–2.8)a 1.1 (0.7–1.8)
 South 2.0 (1.3–3.0)a 0.9 (0.6–1.4)
 West 1.9 (1.2–2.9)a 0.5 (0.3–0.8)a
Hospital ownership
 Voluntary (non-profit) 1.0 1.0
 Government non-federal 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 0.9 (0.5–1.4)
 Proprietary 0.6 (0.4–0.97)a 0.8 (0.5–1.3)
Insurance status
 Private insurance 1.0 1.0
 Medicare 0.4 (0.2–0.6)a 1.3 (0.8–2.2)
 Medicaid 0.5 (0.4–0.7)a 1.0 (0.7–1.6)
 Self-pay 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 0.7 (0.4–1.1)
 Other insurance 0.5 (0.3–0.9)a 0.8 (0.4–1.4)
Urgency at triage 1.7 (1.0–2.9)a 2.3 (1.3–3.9)a
Alcohol-related visit 0.7 (0.4–1.3) 1.5 (0.8–2.9)
High-risk co-diagnosis 1.8 (1.0–3.1)a 2.5 (1.4–4.5)a
CT or MRI Outcome variable 3.2 (2.3–4.4)a
Hospital admission 3.1 (2.2–4.4)a Outcome variable
  1. MSA metropolitan statistical area, CT computed tomography, MRI magnetic resonance imaging
  2. aStatistically significant at α = 0.05