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Table 5 Agents involved in toxic exposures

From: Demographics of toxic exposures presenting to three public hospital emergency departments in Singapore 2001–2003

Toxin Frequency (% of total exposures)
Alcohol 2,802 (27.8)
Analgesics (paracetamol, NSAIDs, opiates) 1,330 (13.2)
Sedatives (benzodiazepines, barbiturates) 849 (8.4)
Antidepressants 215 (2.1)
Antipsychotics 76 (0.8)
Anticonvulsants 41 (0.4)
Cough & cold preparations 325 (3.2)
Antimicrobials 77 (0.8)
Anticoagulants (heparin, warfarin) 5 (0.1)
Asthma medications (salbutamol, Atrovent, theophylline, steroids) 104 (1.0)
Endocrine medications (oral hypoglycaemics & insulin) 57 (0.6)
Gastrointestinal medications (laxatives, antispasmodics, antacids) 121 (1.2)
Cardiac medications (antihypertensives, antiarrhythmics, digoxin) 75 (0.7)
Vitamins & nutritional supplements 45 (0.4)
Illicit drugs 150 (1.5)
Food poisoning 91 (0.9)
Bites & stings 1,480 (14.7)
Pesticides 69 (0.7)
Cleaning products—domestic 314 (3.1)
Cleaning products—medical 87 (0.9)
Industrial chemicals 1,046 (10.4)
Personal care products (cosmetics, perfumes) 71 (0.7)
Smoke inhalation 139 (1.4)
Traditional medications 66 (0.7)
Others/unknown 428 (4.3)
Total 10,063
  1. NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs