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Table 1 Modules 1–14

From: Medical student disaster medicine education: the development of an educational resource

Modules, learning activity Educational goal Core contents
a Medical Student Disaster Medicine Curriculum, Modules 1–3
Module 1, Lecture and PBLD   
Introduction to disaster medicine, terminology To learn definitions of disaster medicine and to develop an understanding for general disaster management Glossary and common disaster medicine definitions, differences between disaster and emergency medicine, different phases of disaster management
Disaster assistance   Principles of disaster assistance
Disaster assistance organization, assistance agencies and structure
Typology To consider the heterogeneity of disasters Natural and technological disasters, terrorism, man-made disasters, civilian disorders, environmental and other threats
Laws and regulations To understand the legal environment and regulations for civil protection and disaster preparedness Regulative and administrative issues for civil disaster protection, warfare disaster protection laws, rescue service and hospital laws, governmental resources, and authorities
Module 2, Lecture and PBLD   
Disaster medical management To realize the architecture and organizational management necessary for coping with mass casualty incidents and large-scale acutely ill patients in a coordinated way Mass casualty disposition, treatment area, transport issues
Functional operations Tasks of rapid-intervention-units (sanitary/psychosocial care)
Incident command systems Disaster contingency plans command and control structures, functional operations center
Coordination structures Coordination, integration, and cooperation of multi-agency rescue and assistance response
Functional roles Functional response roles, e.g., lead emergency physician, organizational leader, and technical command post
Information management Communication, coordination
Module 3, Lecture and PBLD   
Specific disaster medicine To develop skills in principles of tactically managing mass casualties and large numbers of patients suffering, e.g., from combined conventional trauma and thermal injuries Patient assessment and triage: triage levels, tags, registration; primary emergency care, multi-tasking and operational management phases (e.g., patient collection, treatment area, transport)
Tactic disaster medical management   Logistical requirements for care of burn-injuries, mine blast, and missile-hit victims (including high-speed bullet injuries), mass trauma management
b Medical Student Disaster Medicine Curriculum, Modules 4–8
Module 4, PBLD and Interactive Review   
Hospital preparedness and disaster management planning To follow orders and principles of hospital alarm and evacuation plans Hospital disaster laws
Hospital alarm plans
Hospital preparedness plans for
- Management of external disasters with mass casualties suffering from multiple injuries, intoxication, infections, and/or radioactive contamination
- Management of in-house disasters with fire incidents and hospital evacuation
Module 5, PBLD and Interactive Review   
Presentation of past disasters and review of assistance experiences To evaluate and understand feasibility issues of providing medical support and health care in the field and under disaster conditions based on experience from worldwide disaster assistance operations Presentation of past disasters and disaster assistance experience gained in the field, e.g., from lead emergency physicians, operations in earthquake assistance, explosions, highly contagious infectious diseases, repatriation flights, and with the German Federal Armed Forces Medical Corps in world crisis regions
Module 6, Experiential Training   
Preclinical and clinical triage exercise To perform triage decisions in reality simulation Triage training exercise: real or virtual scenario simulation rescue exercise, e.g., explosion with mass casualties and blast, mechanical, and thermal injuries of all triage levels
Module 7, Experiential Training   
Evacuation exercise To apply operational principles and steps of action for evacuation procedures Command post exercise, real or virtual: e.g., evacuation organization and evacuation of a hospital, school, part of town, etc.
Module 8, Lecture and PBLD   
Life-saving disaster emergency medical care To learn concepts of life-saving emergency disaster medical care Under disaster conditions: provision of life-saving emergency medical care to adults and children, e.g., shock therapy, pain treatment, and sedation
c Medical Student Disaster Medicine Curriculum, Modules 9–11
Module 9, Lecture and PBLD   
Specific disaster emergency medical care for various situations including bioterrorism incidents To get to know principles of specific disaster medical care Disaster emergency medical first aid, specific measures
Surgical and medical treatments of burn and thermal injuries and illnesses from explosive, warfare and biological agents
Epidemiology and approaches to terrorist attacks, weapons, and highly contagious infectious diseases, sentinel cases
Module 10, Lecture and PBLD   
Radiological and nuclear threats, accidents with radioactive material, radiation illness and syndrome, decontamination To learn principles and basic medical care for management of incidents with radiologic/nuclear agents and contaminated victims Specific dangers of radiological/nuclear agents, associated illnesses and radiation syndrome
   Self protection, protection and detection equipment, special intervention units
   First aid medical treatment, isolation and radioactive decontamination, decontamination operations in case of mass trauma combined with contamination injuries
Experiential training   
Decontamination after radiation exposure To be exposed to practical aspects and procedures of decontamination Decontamination exercise or decontamination demonstration, e.g., in nuclear power plant or with the fire brigades
Module 11, Lecture and PBLD   
Chemical and toxicological threats from hazardous materials and goods, transport risks, acute poisoning and toxic syndromes To get to know principles of medical countermeasures for management of incidents with dangerous chemical substances, hazardous materials and goods Identification and risk assessment of hazardous materials, chemicals and goods, and associated toxic syndromes
Management of acute intoxications and poisonings, threats from specific poisons
Self protection, precautions
Poisoning epidemiology, risk assessment for mass intoxications   First aid medical treatment, e.g., enhanced elimination of toxins, use of antidotes, adjunctive services, e.g., poison emergency centers and toxicology laboratories
Experiential training   
Decontamination after chemical poisoning To experience exposure to decontamination procedures Triage in case of mass casualties with toxic syndromes
Decontamination measures and exercise
d Medical Student Disaster Medicine Curriculum, Modules 12–14
Module 12, Lecture, PBLD, and Interactive Review   
Ethics and professionalism To develop familiarity with ethical codes and the duty of care relevant to disaster conditions Geneva Convention and amended protocols, ethical codes of conduct, humanitarian imperatives, social, moral, and ethical challenges of disasters
Quality assurance To understand quality improvement efforts and risk management programs for disaster medical response Quality control performance indicators, incident monitoring, tools for risk and critical event assessment, structured improvement approaches
Appropriate documentation
Module 13, PBLD and Interactive Review To comprehend concepts of psychic stress response Case presentations for identification of critical incident stress reactions and review of therapeutic interventions
Psychosocial care To learn techniques to deal with psychic reactions caused by exposure to disaster scenarios Treatment approaches to acute and delayed critical incident stress reactions, acute and chronic stress syndromes, post-traumatic stress disorders
To recognize need for help and to initiate psychosocial support Structure and tasks of psychosocial emergency intervention units
Operational strategies of psychosocial treatment
Module 14, Course Completion   
Closing examination To demonstrate gain of knowledge and skills Student final examination, oral and/or written test
Evaluation of educational success To assess educational value of course Comparison of pre-program versus post-program student test results
Learner and educator assessment of course To maintain continuous curriculum development and improvement in course quality Student and faculty summative and formative course evaluation