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Table 3 Likelihood ratios of clinical and laboratory parameters of blood culture-positive EF (n = 53) versus blood culture negative for EF (n = 296) (July 2000–June 2005)

From: Diagnosis of enteric fever in the emergency department: a retrospective study from Pakistan

Parameters Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV + LR (95% CI) − LR (95% CI)
Abdominal pain 0.89 0.17 0.29 0.81 1.08 (0.99–1.18) 0.59 (0.31–1.13)
Epigastric pain 0.03 0.92 0.71 0.14 0.44 (0.14–1.37) 1.04 (0.96–1.13)
Anorexia 0.82 0.15 0.06 0.92 0.97 (0.80–1.17) 1.15 (0.45–2.92)
Vomiting 0.54 0.22 0.79 0.08 0.68 (10.58–0.83) 2.02 (1.21–3.38)
Diarrhea 0. 86 0.15 1.92 0.83 1.02 (0.91–1.13) 0.87 (0.45–1.70)
Chills 0.86 0.15 0.20 0.73 1.01 (0.92–1.12) 0.89 (0.50–1.57)
Cough 0.20 0.86 0.89 0.16 1.56 (0.75–3.22) 0.91(0.81–1.03)
Headache 0.89 0.15 0.11 0.92 1.06 (0.94–1.19) 0.66 (0..25–1.74)
Past history of EF 0.77 0.14 0.04 0.92 0.91 (0.71–1.17) 1.50 (0.60–3.69)
Dehydration 0.33 0.54 0.80 0.12 0.73 (0.52–1.02) 1.22 (0.94–1.58)
Anemia 0.21 0.86 0.9 0.16 1.61 (0.78–3.32) 0.90 (0.80–1.02)
Palpable lymph nodes 0.05 0.94 0.83 0.15 0.89 (0.26–2.98) 1.00(0.93–1.08)
Leukopenia 0.31 0.77 0.88 0.17 1.36 (0.80–2.30) 0.89(0.76–1.05)
Neutropenia 0.31 0.77 0.88 0.16 1.37 (0.81–2.32) 0.89 (0.75–1.05)
Thrombocytopenia 0.42 0.59 0.85 0.15 1.05 (0.74–1.51) 0.95 (0.75–1.22)