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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Lack of clinically evident signs of organ failure affects ED treatment of patients with severe sepsis

  Total Ward ICU P-value
No. (%) 323 198 (61) 125 (39)  
Age (years) 66 ± 17 68 ± 17 63 ± 16 0.015
Male sex 183 (57) 107 76 0.294
Comorbidities (%)     
COPD 49 (15) 32 (16) 17 (14) 0.419
Liver disease 34 (11) 20 (10) 14 (11) 0.850
Malignancy, not metastasized 39 (12) 21 (11) 17 (14) 0.372
Malignancy, metastasized 31 (22) 29 (15) 2 (2) 0.004
Immune compromised† 96 (30) 65 (33) 31 (25) 0.16
Clinical presentation     
Respiratory rate (/min) 28 ± 10 27 ± 9 29 ± 10 0.403
SO2 92±9 93 ± 7 90 ± 11 0.035
Heart rate (/min) 111 ± 24 110 ± 24 111 ± 25 0.820
Systolic BP (mmHg) 105 ± 31 105 ± 30 106 ± 33 0.763
Diastolic (mmHg) 58 ± 18 57 ± 18 59 ± 18 0.455
Altered mental status 118 (37) 59 (30) 59 (47) 0.005
Febrile chills 72 (22) 49 (25) 23 (18) 0.320
Temperature (°C) 38.1 ± 1.6 38.0 ± 1.4 38.2 ± 1.9 0.354
Laboratory results     
Leucocyte count (10 × 9/l) 14.1 ± 9.9 15.1 ± 9.0 12.9 ± 11.2 0.048
Platelets (.1012/l) 248 ± 160 258 ± 149 235 ± 178 0.223
INR 1.8 ± 1.5 1.7 ± 1.5 1.9 ± 1.5 0.598
Bilirubin (μmol/l) 22 ± 29 23 ± 33 21 ± 24 0.557
Lactate (mmol/l) 3.7 ± 2.6 3.5 ± 2.5 3.9 ± 2.9 0.289
C-reactive protein (mg/l) 194 ± 142 183 ± 135 216 ± 151 0.046
Glucose (mmol/l) 9.2 ± 5.7 9.4 ± 6.3 8.6 ± 4.0 0.203
pH 7.35 ± 0.59 7.32 ± 0.79 7.39 ± 0.10 0.26
Creatinine (μmol/l) 171 ± 116 175 ± 123 166 ± 106 0.516
Urea (mmol/l) 14.1 ± 10.3 15 ± 11 13 ± 9 0.150
Suspected site of infection (%)     
Pneumonia 165 (51) 100 (51) 60 (48) 1.0
Urinary tract infection 97 (30) 66 (33) 31 (25) 0.164
Abdominal 47 (15) 26 (13) 21 (17) 0.259
Neurological 8 (3) 4 (2) 4 (3) 0.479
Skin 22 (7) 8 (4) 13 (3) 0.02
Other 41 (13) 26 (13) 15 (12) 0.862
Illness severity     
Number of acute organ dysfunctions 1.8 ± 0.9 1.7 ± 0.9 1.9 ± 0.9 0.205
PIRO score 11.9 ± 4.6 11.8 ± 5.1 12.8 ± 4.3 0.045
MEDS score 8.8 ± 4.0 8.5 ± 4.1 9.1 ± 3.8 0.26
DNR status 89 (28) 71 (36) 18 (14) <0.001
ED Treatment     
Fluids in ED (l) 1.9 ± 1.3 1.6 ± 1.1 2.2 ± 1.5 <0.001
Time to antibiotics (min) 115 ± 91 127 ± 95 94 ± 74 0.005
Number of goals attained 4.3 ± 1.4 3.9 ± 1.4 5.1 ± 1.0 <0.001
All goals attained 77 (24) 28 (14) 49 (39) <0.001
ICU consultation in ED 171 (53) 46 (23) 125 (100) <0.001
Hospital length of stay (days)     
Total 13.1 ± 15.0 10 ± 12 18 ± 19 <0.001
ICU 3.3 ± 8.9 0.5 ± 2.0 8 ± 13.1 <0.001
Ward 9.7 ± 10.4 9.7 ± 10.7 10.0 ± 10.1 0.789
In-hospital mortality 72 (22.3) 39 (20) 33 (26) 0.208
  1. Data are presented as number (% of total) or mean (± SD). Abbreviations: COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; INR: International Normalized Ratio; ED: emergency department; ICU: intensive care unit; DNR: do not resuscitate; MAP: mean arterial pressure; PIRO: predisposition, infection, response, organ failure score; MEDS: Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis score. †Immune compromised was defined as a patient having one or more of the following: currently on immune-suppressive medication, concurrent or recent chemotherapy, current hematological malignancy or medical history positive for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).