Skip to main content

Table 1 Pediatric procedures and surgeries for which the ESM-Ketamine anesthesia package was utilized

From: An innovative safe anesthesia and analgesia package for emergency pediatric procedures and surgeries when no anesthetist is available

Procedure Number (%) Median ketamine dose (and range) (mg/kg) Median duration of procedure (and range) (min)
Arthrocentesis 4 (4.4) 2.0 (1.4–2.0) 20.0 (15.0–49.0)b
Cesarean section 3 (3.3) 5.5 (3.7–7.0) 65.0 (35.0–90.0)
Circumcision 1 (1.1) 2.8 (2.8–2.8) 13.0 (13.0–13.0)
Closed orthopedic reduction 27 (30.0) 2.0 (1.5–4.0) 18.2 (5.0–60.0)b
Complex laceration repair (non-gyn) 2 (2.2) 3.4 (3.0–3.8) 32.5 (25.0–40.0)
Debridement and irrigation of burns 19 (21.1) 2.9 (2.0–6.0) 20.0 (5.0–83.0)
Excision of mass 1 (1.1) 3.0 (3.0–3.0) 65.0 (65.0–65.0)
Exploratory laparotomy 2 (2.2) 6.0 (6.0–6.0) 51.0 (42.0–60.0)
Foreign body removal 6 (6.7) 3.0 (2.0–3.9)a 21.0 (11.0–30.0)
Gynecologic laceration repair 3 (3.3) 3.0 (2.0–4.9) 37.5 (15.0–60.0)b
Incision and drainage 19 (21.1) 2.0 (1.9–4.0) 20.0 (10.0–75.0)b
Open orthopedic reduction 2 (2.2) 5.6 (2.8–8.3) 20.0 (5.0–35.0)
Paracentesis 1 (1.1) 4.0 (4.0–4.0) 24.0 (24.0–24.0)
Total 90 2.0 (1.4–8.3) 20.0 (5.0–90.0)
  1. aOne case did not have a weight recorded, and so dose/kg could not be calculated
  2. b10 cases had only one dose of ketamine so did not have total time recorded