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Table 2 Assessing for the predictors associated with return of spontaneous circulation (N = 128)

From: Outcomes following cardiopulmonary resuscitation in an emergency department of a low- and middle-income country

  ROSC achieveda
Unadjusted OR (CI)b Adjusted OR (CI)c
Age groups
 ≤ 49 2.2 (1.5–3.4)** 2.2 (1.3–3.6)*
 > 49 Ref Ref
Patient’s gender
 Females 1.4 (0.9–2.1)
 Males Ref Ref
Co-morbidities
 No co-morbidities Ref Ref
 One co-morbidity 1.4 (0.8–2.3)
 Two co-morbidities 1.4 (0.8–2.4)
 More than two co-morbidities 0.7 (0.3–1.7)
Location of cardiac arrest
 In-hospital (ED) 2.5 (1.7–3.9)**
 Out-of-hospital Ref Ref
Witnessed arrest
 Yes 6.2 (3.6–10.6)** 1.9 (1.1–3.7)*
 No Ref Ref
Cause of cardiac arrest
 Cardiopulmonary Ref Ref
 Non-Cardiopulmonary 1.5 (0.1–2.3)
Initial cardiac rhythm during arrest
 Shockable 4.4 (2.8–6.9)**
 Non-shockable Ref Ref
Rhythm documented at the time of initiation of CPR:
 Asystole Ref Ref
 Pulseless electrical activity 2.2 (1.3–3.9)*
 Ventricular fibrillation 7.2 (4.0–13.3)**
 Pulseless ventricular tachycardia 5.7 (2.6–12.5)**
CPC score before cardiac arrest
 ≤ 2 1.5 (0.4–5.4)
 > 2 Ref Ref
Bystander performed CPR
 Yes 3.0 (2.0–4.6)**
 No Ref Ref
Time interval from collapse-to-start CPR duration
 ≤ 30 min 28.2 (10.2–78.1)** 14.6 (4.9–43.4)**
 > 30 min Ref Ref
CPR duration
 < 20 min Ref Ref
 ≥ 20 min 1.656 (1.081–2536)*
Number of shocks given
 0 0.4 (0.2–0.7)* 0.8 (0.4–1.4)
 1–4 3.0 (1.4–6.3)* 3.0 (1.4–6.4)*
 > 4 Ref Ref
Epinephrine
 < 5 ampules Ref Ref
 ≥ 5 ampules 1.9 (1.2–2.8)*
Initial serum glucose  
Doctor’s shift
 Morning 1.3 (0.8–2.0)
 Evening 1.0 (0.6–1.7)
 Night Ref Ref
Team leader
 Staff 1.0 (0.7–1.5)
 Resident Ref Ref
  1. aROSC not achieved is the reference category, bUnivariate binary logistic regression, cMultivariate binary logistic regression.*p value< 0.05, **p value< 0.0001