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Table 1 Description of available guidelines and instruments on pre-hospital and trauma care

From: Assessment of pre-hospital emergency medical services in low-income settings using a health systems approach

  ACS resources for optimal trauma care WHO guidelines for essential trauma care WHO guidelines for pre-hospital trauma system WHO emergency care system assessment tool
Stated purpose of the instrument Guidelines for care of injured patients/trauma center verification Guidelines to improve trauma care at facility level Guidelines for planning and implementing trauma care in pre-hospital phase To help policy-makers and planners assess a national or regional emergency care system
Unit State/regional trauma system Health care facilities of different level Pre-hospital trauma system Health system
Dimensions/input Trauma center designation, pre-hospital care, transfer, clinical functions, trauma registry, performance improvement, disaster planning, etc. 14 aspects of clinical care including different injuries, diagnostic modalities, medicines, and rehabilitation, etc. Seven key inputs, e.g., system models, providers, resource matrix, transport, communication, etc. 11 domains including trauma system organization, governance, financing, transport, facility-based care, surge capacity, etc.
Data collection methods Onsite review of hospital for optimal resource verification Survey or interview-based assessment Survey or interview-based assessment Survey of policy makers and administrators
Selected Indicators Type I and type II indicators, where type I are deemed essential: patient safety, surgical functions, trauma patient volume, in-house attending Knowledge/skill and equipment/ supplies for each category Resource matrix including knowledge/skill and equipment/supplies Lead agency, proportion of facilities with designated emergency unit, or 24-h dedicated staff, number of ambulances
Scope Trauma center accreditation according to different levels of care Assessment of level of care provided at each facility Status of pre-hospital trauma care based on availability of essential, desirable and relevant skills and resources Status of emergency care systems for policy and planning; identification of gaps and setting priorities for system development