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Table 1 Description of available guidelines and instruments on pre-hospital and trauma care

From: Assessment of pre-hospital emergency medical services in low-income settings using a health systems approach


ACS resources for optimal trauma care

WHO guidelines for essential trauma care

WHO guidelines for pre-hospital trauma system

WHO emergency care system assessment tool

Stated purpose of the instrument

Guidelines for care of injured patients/trauma center verification

Guidelines to improve trauma care at facility level

Guidelines for planning and implementing trauma care in pre-hospital phase

To help policy-makers and planners assess a national or regional emergency care system


State/regional trauma system

Health care facilities of different level

Pre-hospital trauma system

Health system


Trauma center designation, pre-hospital care, transfer, clinical functions, trauma registry, performance improvement, disaster planning, etc.

14 aspects of clinical care including different injuries, diagnostic modalities, medicines, and rehabilitation, etc.

Seven key inputs, e.g., system models, providers, resource matrix, transport, communication, etc.

11 domains including trauma system organization, governance, financing, transport, facility-based care, surge capacity, etc.

Data collection methods

Onsite review of hospital for optimal resource verification

Survey or interview-based assessment

Survey or interview-based assessment

Survey of policy makers and administrators

Selected Indicators

Type I and type II indicators, where type I are deemed essential: patient safety, surgical functions, trauma patient volume, in-house attending

Knowledge/skill and equipment/ supplies for each category

Resource matrix including knowledge/skill and equipment/supplies

Lead agency, proportion of facilities with designated emergency unit, or 24-h dedicated staff, number of ambulances


Trauma center accreditation according to different levels of care

Assessment of level of care provided at each facility

Status of pre-hospital trauma care based on availability of essential, desirable and relevant skills and resources

Status of emergency care systems for policy and planning; identification of gaps and setting priorities for system development