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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of patient presentations and dispositions in the study periods

From: The impact of a multimodal intervention on emergency department crowding and patient flow

  Pre-intervention period n = 31,891 Intervention period n = 32,121 Odds ratio (95% CI) p valuea
Median ageb in years (IQR*) 45 (26–65) 47 (27–66) 1.00 (1.00–1.00) < 0.001
Age in yearsb n (%)
 17 years and younger 4273 (13.4) 4019 (12.5) 0.92 (0.88–0.97) 0.001
 18–64 years 19,493 (61.1) 19,449 (60.5) 0.98 (0.95–1.01) 0.130
 65–74 years 3694 (11.6) 3981 (12.4) 1.08 (1.03–1.13) 0.002
 75 years and older 4426 (13.9) 4672 (14.5) 1.06 (1.01–1.10) 0.016
Self-referred 11,278 (35.4) 10,841 (33.8) 0.93 (0.90–0.96) < 0.001
Acuity levelc n (%)
 Life-threatening 427 (1.3) 413 (1.3) 0.96 (0.84–1.10) 0.554
 High urgent 7546 (23.7) 7351 (22.9) 0.96 (0.92–0.99) 0.020
 Urgent 14,339 (45.0) 15,172 (47.2) 1.10 (1.06–1.13) < 0.001
 Standard 8663 (27.2) 7841 (24.4) 0.87 (0.84–0.90) < 0.001
 Non-urgent 230 (0.7) 214 (3.5) 0.92 (0.77–1.11) 0.402
Medical specialism n (%)
 Cardiology 4396 (13.8) 4454 (13.9) (0.96–1.05) 0.764
 Surgery/traumatology 9601 (30.1) 10,219 (31.8) 1.08 (1.05–1.12) < 0.001
 Neurology 3750 (11.8) 3785 (11.8) 1.00 (0.96–1.05) 0.923
 Internal medicine 4493 (14.1) 4647 (14.5) 1.03 (0.99–1.08) 0.171
 Other specialismd 9651 (30.3) 9016 (28.1) 0.90 (0.87–0.93) < 0.001
Presenting problemc n (%)
 Abdominal pain 4931 (15,8) 5071 (16.4) 1.04 (1.00–1.09) 0.053
 Back pain 371 (1.2) 361 (1.2) 0.98 (0.85–1.13) 0.787
 Chest pain and collapse 4353 (13.9) 4221 (13.6) 0.97 (0.93–1.02) 0.245
 Ear/nose/throat/eye 682 (2.2) 601 (1.9) 0.89 (0.79–0.99) 0.032
 Headache and head injury 2379 (7.6) 2248 (7.3) 0.95 (0.89–1.01) 0.082
 Limb problems 5302 (17.0) 4829 (15.6) 0.90 (0.87–0.94) < 0.001
 Psychiatric disorders 1148 (3.7) 1153 (3.7) 1.01 (0.93–1.10) 0.773
 Severe trauma and falls 2263 (7.2) 2262 (7.3) 1.01 (0.95–1.07) 0.806
 Shortness of breath 2357 (7.6) 2537 (8.2) 1.09 (1.03–1.16) 0.003
 Unwell patient 3629 (11.6) 3991 (12.9) 1.12 (1.07–1.18) < 0.001
 Wounds and local infections 2063 (6.6) 2008 (6.5) 0.98 (0.92–1.04) 0.519
 Other presenting probleme 1736 (5.6) 1700 (5.5) 0.99 (0.92–1.06) 0.684
Arrival during peak hours (noon–8 pm) 15,115 (47.4) 15,195 (47.3) 1.00 (0.97–1.03) 0.819
  1. *Abbreviation: CI confidence interval, ED emergency department, IQR interquartile range
  2. ap values were calculated using χ2 tests, except for median age, which was calculated using the Mann-Whitney U test
  3. bBased on 64,007 presentations, due to 5 missings
  4. cBased on 62,196 presentations, due to 1816 (2.8%) missings
  5. dOther specialism: all visits for other specialism besides cardiology, internal medicine, neurology, and surgery
  6. eOther presenting problem: presenting problem occurring less than 600 times during the study periods: allergy, asthma, diabetes, facial problems, irritable child, neck pain, sexually acquired infections