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Table 1 Examples of presentation-wise “worst case” scenarios

From: How to think like an emergency care provider: a conceptual mental model for decision making in emergency care

PresentationExamples of worst case scenarios
Abdominal pain• Abdominal aortic aneurysm
• Mesenteric ischemia
• Acute myocardial infarction
• Perforated ulcer
• Volvulus
• Intussusception
• Ovarian torsion
• Ectopic pregnancy
• Bowel Obstruction
• Acute appendicitis
• Cholangitis
• Splenic sequestration in sickle cell Disease patients
• Diabetic ketoacidosis
• Black widow spider bite
Chest pain• Pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum
• Pericardial effusion/tamponade
• Acute coronary syndromes
• Pulmonary embolism
• Acute aortic dissection
• Traumatic aortic rupture
• Pneumonia
• Esophageal rupture
• Acute chest syndrome in sickle cell Disease patients
• Pericarditis
Eye pain and redness• Acute angle-closure glaucoma
• Orbital cellulitis
• Anterior uveitis/iritis
• Ruptured globe
• Corneal abrasions/ulcer
• Keratitis
• Chemical burns
Headache• Meningitis
• Subarachnoid hemorrhage
• Carbon monoxide poisoning
• Intracranial abscess
• Hematoma subdural/epidural
• Temporal arteritis
• Complicated sinusitis
• Cavernous sinus thrombosis
• Brain tumor
• Acute angle-closure glaucoma