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Table 2 Summarized findings of included COVID-19 research articles

From: Physical and mental health impacts of COVID-19 on healthcare workers: a scoping review

Author, year, country Study title Study design and population Intervention/outcome Key findings
Mental health impacts
Xiao H et al. 2020, China The Effects of Social Support on Sleep Quality of Medical Staff Treating Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in January and February 2020 in China Cross-sectional study
N = 180
sleep quality,
social support
High levels of anxiety, stress, and self-efficacy were associated with sleep quality and social support
Huang JZ et al. 2020, China Mental health survey of 230 medical staff in a tertiary infectious disease hospital for COVID-19 Cross-sectional study
N = 246
Mental health status (anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder) Overall anxiety (23.04%)
Severe anxiety (2.17%)
Moderate anxiety (4.78%)
Mild anxiety (16.09%)
Anxiety in females higher than males (25.67% vs. 11.63%)
Anxiety in nurses higher than doctors (26.88% vs. 14.29%)
Stress disorder (27.39%)
Chen Q et al. 2020, China Mental health care for medical staff in China during the COVID-19 outbreak Correspondence
N = 1230
place of rest, food and daily supply for staff, video recording of the daily routine of staff, pre-job training to deal with psychological problems in patients, PPE, leisure activities and training to relax, psychological counselors
Outcome: irritability, unwillingness to rest, psychological distress before and after intervention
The learning from psychological interventions is expected to help the Chinese government and other parts of the world to better respond to future unexpected infectious disease outbreaks
Kang L et al. 2020, Wuhan, China The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus Correspondence
N = 1230
Built psychological intervention medical team, hotline, various group activities to release stress
Outcome: change in stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, insomnia denial, anger and fear before and after intervention
This approach provides multifaceted psychological protection of the mental health of medical workers.
Jianbo Lai et al. 2020, China Factors associated with Mental Health outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019 Cross-sectional study
N = 1257,
34 hospitals
Depression, anxiety, insomnia, and distress Depression (50.4%)
Anxiety (44.6%)
Insomnia (34.0%)
Distress (71.5%)
More psychological burden among nurses, women, those in Wuhan, and frontline healthcare workers
Physical health impacts
Ran L et al. 2020, Wuhan, China Risk factors of Healthcare Workers with Corona Virus Disease 2019: A Retrospective Cohort Study in a Designated Hospital of Wuhan in China Retrospective cohort study
N = 83
Sociodemographic characteristics, time to symptomatic progression, contact history, medical practice, hand hygiene, and PPE 28 HCWs were diagnosed with COVID-19
Diagnosed family member (p < 0.01), unqualified hand-washing (p < 0.05), suboptimal hand hygiene before (p < 0.01), and after (p < 0.01) contact with patients
Improper PPE (p < 0.05)
were associated with increased risk of infection
Liu M et al., 2020, China Clinical characteristics of 30 medical workers infected with new coronavirus pneumonia Cross-sectional study
N = 30
Clinical characteristics of medical staff with novel coronavirus pneumonia Total of 30 cases, 26 mild cases, and 4 severe cases
Cough (83.33%)
Fever (76.67%) were the most common symptoms
Lan J et al. 2020, Hubei, China Skin damage among health-care workers managing coronavirus disease-2019 Cross-sectional study
N = 700
Cutaneous complications related to preventative measures among health-care workers treating patients with COVID-19 Prevalence of skin damage: 97% Nasal bridge most common site: 83.1%
Dryness/tightness: 70.3%
Kangqi Ng et al. 2020, Singapore COVID-19 and the Risk to Health Care Workers: A Case Report Case report
N = 41
The rate of infection in 41 health-care workers exposed to the patient with COVID-19 during aerosol-generating procedure None of the healthcare workers got infected by COVID-19
85% of healthcare workers were wearing surgical masks while 15% were wearing N-95 during aerosol-generating procedure
Surgical masks, hand hygiene, and other standard procedures were sufficient to protect against infection
Vincent C.C. Cheng et al. 2020, Hongkong Escalating infection control response to the rapidly evolving epidemiology of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 in Hong Kong Cross-sectional study
N = 413
Contact tracing of HCWs with unprotected exposure 2.7% (11/413) HCWs had unprotected exposure, none of them were infected