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Table 3 The clinical profile of patients who had a CSF analysis. N = 8

From: Cerebrospinal fluid findings and hypernatremia in COVID-19 patients with altered mental status

Hypernatremia Normal sodium
   Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Case 6 Case 7 Case 8
Demographics Age (years) 79 66 76 77 58 82 64 64
Sex M M M M M M M M
Race White Asian Asian White White White White White
Serum (highest) White blood cell count (#/ul) 10.0 23.1 31.4 13.63 19.8 10.3 45.9 18.2
Hemoglobin (g/dl) 14.9 15.2 13.4 16.7 14 11.7 14.7 12.6
D-dimer (mg/L FEU) 3.768 31.04   1.62   2.60 36.39  
Alanine aminotransferase (IU/L) 34 54 157 95 164 75 93 36
Aspartate aminotransferase (IU/L) 99 65 122 91 226 62 91 77
Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.21 1.18 7.27 2.61 2.85 1.41 7.82 10.60
Troponin I (ng/mL) 0.036 < 0.020 0.210 0.018 0.352 0.150 1.110 0.238
Sodium (mEq/L) 163 152 146 156 150 163 142 145
Hypernatremia severity
• Mild (146-150 mEq/L
• Moderate (151-154 mEq/L)
• Severe (≥ 155 mEq/L)
Severe Moderate Mild Severe Mild Severe None None
Vitals (admission) SpO2 (%) ? 89 93 91 90 92 93 88
Temperature (F) ? 98.1 100.4 97.5 98.3 97.9 102.7 101.4
Pulse (beats/min) ? 105 107 71 97 97 146 74
Blood pressure (mmHg) ? 142/69 132/66 139/68 113/55 128/76 133/95 183/69
Arrival mode to Emergency Department    Walk-in Ambulance    Ambulance Walk-in Walk-in
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) analysis White blood cell count (#/ul) Normal Normal Normal High Normal Normal Normal High
Total cell count (#/ul) Normal Normal High High Normal Normal Normal High
Total protein (mg/dl) High High Normal High Normal Normal High High
Glucose (mg/dl) High Normal High High High High High High
IgG   Normal   High     
Neuron specific enolase (NSE)     High     
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)   Normal Normal      
Clinical outcome Neurological symptoms   Myoclonus, metabolic encephalopathy, unspecified convulsions, anorexia Metabolic encephalopathy, encephalitis and encephalomyelitis, unspecified convulsions Nausea, seizures, encephalopathy   Cerebral infarction, quadriplegia, unspecified, febrile convulsions, dysphagia   Metabolic encephalopathy, absence epileptic syndrome, intractable, with status epilepticus
Other diagnosis   Sepsis, ARDS, hypertension, benign prostate hypertrophy Sepsis, ARDS, cardiac arrest, acute kidney failure, type 2 DM Sepsis, ARDS, acute kidney failure, acute liver failure   Sepsis, ARDS, type 2 DM, diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy, acute diastolic heart failure ARDS, Morbid obese, type 2 DM, HT ARDS, type 2 DM, HL, cardiac arrest
Disease severity Severe/critical Severe/critical Severe/critical Severe/critical Severe/critical Severe/critical Severe/critical Severe/critical
Ventilator need Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Ventilator time ? 28 days 25 days 17 days 27 days 16 11 5
Length of stay in hospital 26 41 45 20 39 20 31 17
In-hospital mortality Ex Ex Ex Ex Discharged Ex Discharged Ex