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Table 2 Characteristics of patients with psychiatric disorder including substance abuse

From: Are pre-existing psychiatric disorders the only reason for involuntary holds in the emergency department?

CovariateNo, N = 13Yes, N = 238p value
Psychiatry and drug information
 Current psychiatric disorder only0 (0.0%)129 (51.4%)< 0.001§
 Current drug abuse only (other than tobacco)0 (0.0%)23 (9.2%)< 0.001§
 Current both psychiatric and drug abuse0 (0.0%)86 (34.3%)< 0.001§
 Neither psychiatric and drug abuse13 (5.2%)0 (0.0%)< 0.001§
Medical information
 Does the patient have medical issues?10 (76.9%)114 (47.9%)0.05§
 Medical diagnoses, diabetes mellitus1 (7.7%)15 (6.3%)0.58§
 Medical diagnoses, hypertension3 (23.1%)39 (16.4%)0.46§
 Medical diagnoses, liver disease0 (0.0%)3 (1.3%)1.00§
 Medical diagnoses, coronary artery disease1 (7.7%)6 (2.5%)0.31§
 Medical diagnoses, COPD0 (0.0%)5 (2.1%)1.00§
 Medical diagnoses, other10 (76.9%)102 (42.9%)0.02§
Violence information
 Patient was violent in the ED0 (0.0%)22 (9.2%)0.62§
Reason for involuntary hold
 Suicidal10 (76.9%)174 (73.1%)0.52§
 Homicidal0 (0.0%)13 (5.5%)1.00§
 Danger to self (not suicidal)2 (15.3%)72 (5.5%)0.76§
 Mental illness1 (7.7%)64 (5.5%)0.20§
Drug information
 Serum alcohol level obtained?7 (53.8%)174 (73.1%)0.132
 Blood alcohol concentration (mg/dL)  0.042
  N7174 
  Median (Q1, Q3)0 (0.0, 0.0)0.0 (0.0, 201.6) 
  Range0.0, 0.00.0, 479.3 
 Urine drug screen9 (69.2%)189 (79.4%)0.482§
 Drug in urine, amphetamine0 (0%)11 (4.6%)1.000§
 Drug in urine, methamphetamine0 (0%)0 (0%)
 Drug in urine, barbiturate0 (0%)8 (3.4%)1.000§
 Drug in urine, benzodiazepine3 (23.1%)52 (21.8%)1.000§
 Drug in urine, cocaine1 (7.7%)19 (8.0%)1.000§
 Drug in urine, opiate2 (15.4%)37 (15.5%)1.000§
 Drug in urine, PCP0 (0.0%)1 (0.4%)1.000§
 Drug in urine, THC0 (0.0%)35 (14.7%)0.225§
 Drug in urine, tricyclic antidepressant0 (0.0%)15 (6.3%)1.000§
 Drug in urine, none5 (38.5%)78 (32.8%)0.671
ED stay information
 Emergency department length of stay (hours)  0.45
  Median (Q1, Q3)6 (5, 10)6 (5, 11) 
 ED discharge disposition  0.06§
  Missing1 (7.7%)36 (15.1%) 
  Home2 (15.4%)5 (2.1%) 
  Inpatient psychiatric/treatment facility10 (76.9%)197 (82.7%) 
 Involuntary hold removed in the ED1 (7.7%)7 (2.9%)0.37§
 ED readmission within 30 days1 (7.7%)12 (5.0%)0.53§
Hospital admission information
 Patient was admitted to the hospital1 (7.7%)36 (15.1%)0.70§
  1. Wilcoxon
  2. Chi-square
  3. §Fisher exact