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Table 2 EC interventions stratified by time period and top 6 diagnoses

From: Emergency medicine matters: epidemiology of medical pathology and changes in patient outcomes after implementation of a post-graduate training program at a Tertiary Teaching Hospital in Kigali, Rwanda

EC intervention Pre-residency Post-residency Chi2
Overall N = 937 N = 780  
IV crystalloid infusion 516 (55.5) 369 (47.6) 0.001
IV fluid amount (ml) 2057 2526 t test = 0.0001
Blood products transfused 88 (16.1) 58 (14.8) 0.6
 Vasopressors 18 (1.9) 4 (0.5) 0.01
 Intubation 29 (3.1) 13 (1.7) 0.06
 Antibiotics 346 (37.2) 327 (42.2) 0.04
 O2 therapy 169 (18.2) 113 (14.6) 0.046
Gastrointestinal N = 244 N = 197  
 IV crystalloid infusion 169 (69.3) 125 (63.5) 0.2
 IV fluid amount (ml) 2784.5 3266.8 t test = 0.04
Blood products transfused 20 (8.2) 12 (6.1) 0.4
 Vasopressors 4 (1.6) 1 (0.5) 0.3
 Intubation 3 (1.2) 2 (1.0) 0.8
 Antibiotics 100 (40.9) 100 (50.7) 0.04
 O2 therapy 20 (8.2) 12 (6.1) 0.4
Infectious disease N = 126 N = 121  
IV crystalloid infusion 79 (62.7) 62 (51.2) 0.07
IV fluid amount (ml) 2033.8 2250 t test = 0.5
Blood products transfused 12 (9.5) 8 (6.6) 0.4
 Vasopressors 3 (2.4) 0 (0) 0.09
 Intubation 4 (3.2) 5 (4.1) 0.7
 Antibiotics 75 (59.5) 74 (61.2) 0.8
 O2 therapy 35 (27.8) 16 (13.2) 0.005
Neurologic N = 113 N = 80  
IV crystalloid infusion 62 (54.9) 37 (46.3) 0.4
IV fluid amount (ml) 1416 1595 t test = 0.5
 Blood products transfused 3 (2.7) 0 (0) 0.2
 Vasopressors 1 (0.9) 1 (1.25) 0.8
 Intubation 13 (11.5) 2 (2.5) 0.02
 Antibiotics 35 (31.0) 26 (32.5) 0.8
 O2 therapy 29 (25.7) 13 (16.3) 0.1
Pulmonary N = 71 N = 64  
IV crystalloid infusion 29 (40.9) 27 (42.2) 0.9
IV fluid amount (ml) 1574 1761 t test = 0.5
 Blood products transfused 1 (1.4) 2 (3.1) 0.5
 Vasopressors 0 (0) 0 (0)  
 Intubation 2 (2.8) 1 (1.6) 0.6
 Antibiotics 24 (33.8) 30 (46.9) 0.1
 O2 therapy 27 (38.0) 28 (43.8) 0.5
Cardiovascular N = 80 N = 54  
 IV crystalloid infusion 32 (40.0) 10 (18.5) 0.009
IV fluid amount 1629 2700 t test = 0.2
 Blood products transfused 5 (6.2) 4 (7.4) 0.79
 Vasopressors 6 (0.4) 2 (3.7) 0.4
 Intubation 2 (2.5) 1 (1.9) 0.8
 Antibiotics 18 (22.5) 9 (16.7) 0.4
 O2 therapy 30 (37.5) 19 (35.2) 0.8
Urologic or renal N = 56 N = 64  
 IV crystalloid infusion 18 (32.1) 15 (23.4) 0.29
 IV fluid amount 1233 1844 t test = 0.17
 Blood products transfused 4 (7.1) 2 (3.1) 0.31
 Vasopressors 2 (3.6) 0 (0) 0.13
 Intubation 1 (1.8) 0 (0) 0.28
 Antibiotics 11 (19.6) 18 (28.1) 0.28
 O2 therapy 5 (8.9) 9 (14.1) 0.38