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Table 3 Baseline characteristics according to blood culture results

From: Microbiological findings in emergency department patients with sepsis identified by the Sepsis-3 criteria: a single-center prospective population-based cohort study

  Culture-negative
n = 737
Culture-positive
n = 127
Difference (95% CI)
Sex
 Female 343(46.5) 69(54.3) 7.8(÷1.6–17.2)
 Male 394(53.5) 58(45.7)  
Age, median (IQR) 72.9(59.9–81.1) 73.4(64.3–82.8) 1.9(÷4.6–0.7)
Charlson Comorbidity Index, n(%)
 0 197(26.7) 37(29.1) 2.4(÷6.1–10.9)
 1–2 373(50.6) 54(42.5) 8.1(÷1.2–17.4)
 3+ 167(22.7) 36(28.4) 5.7(÷2.7–14.1)
Severity of disease
 SOFA, median (IQR) 2(0–3) 2(1–4) 0
 SOFA > 3, n(%) 109(14.8) 37(29.1) 14.3(6.0–22.6)
 SBP ≤ 90 mmHg, n(%)a 25(3.4) 14(11.0) 7.6(2.0–13.2)
 RR, breath/min (IQR) 21(18–25) 22(19–29) 0(0–3)
 HR, beats/min (IQR) 98(88–111) 106(93–118) 7(3–11)
 Saturation, % (IQR) 96(94–98) 96(93–97) 0
 Temperature, oC (IQR)b 37.9(37.0–38.6) 38.4(37.7–39.1) 0.5(0.3–0.7)
 GCS < 15, n(%) 137(18.6) 35(27.6) 9.0(0.7–17.3)
 SIRS score, median (IQR) 2(2–3) 3(2–4) 1(÷1–0)
 LOS, days, median (IQR) 5.0(31–8.4) 7.1(4.6–12.2) 2.0(1.1–2.9)
Laboratory variables, median (IQR)
 CRP 92(34–161) 141(68–249) 44(19.1–68.0)
 WBC 13(9.6–17.1) 14.7(9.9–19.1) 1.1(÷2.5-0.3)
Focus of infection
 Pulmonary, n(%) 463(62.8) 67(52.8) 10.0(0.6–19.4)
 Urinary tract, n(%) 139(18.9) 44(34.7) 15.8(7.1–24.5)
 Abdominal, n(%) 67(9.1) 11(8.7) 0.4(÷4.9–5.7)
 CNS, n(%) 4(0.5) 1(0.8) 0.3(÷1.3–1.9)
 Skin, n(%) 46(6.2) 10(7.9) 1.7(÷3.3–6.7)
 Endocarditis, n(%) 3(0.4) 1(0.8) 0.4(÷1.2–2.0)
I.V. AB treatment prior to BC, n(%) 115(15.6) 10(7.9) 7.7(2.3–13.1)
Time to first BC obtained, median hours (IQR) 1.4(0.8–3.7) 0.9(0.6–1.5) 0.4(0.3–0.6)
Number of BCs obtained, n(%)
 1 737(100) 106(83.5) 16.5(10.0–23.0)
 2 0 12(9.4)  
 3 0 7(5.5)  
 4 0 1(0.8)  
 5 0 1(0.8)  
 > 1 0 21(16.5) 16.5(10.0–23.0)
  1. AB antibiotic, BC blood culture, CI confidence interval, CNS central nervous system, CRP C-reactive protein, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale score, HR heart rate, IQR interquartile range, IV intravenous, LOS length of stay, RR respiratory rate, SIRS systemic inflammatory response syndrome, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, SBP systolic blood pressure, WBC white blood cells
  2. a9 missing
  3. b17 missing