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Table 4 Blood culture characteristics and specific causative pathogens among septic patients identified by SOFA or SIRS criteria

From: Microbiological findings in emergency department patients with sepsis identified by the Sepsis-3 criteria: a single-center prospective population-based cohort study

  SOFA
(n = 466)
SIRS
(n = 398)
Difference (95% CI)
Time to BC, h, median(IQR)a 1.4(0.7–3.8) 1.2(0.7–2.7) 0.11(÷0.03–0.22)
Time to AB, h, median(IQR)b 4.3(2.6–7.5) 4.2(2.6–7.5) 0.1(÷0.5–0.4)
Treated with AB before BC 76(16.3) 49(12.3) 4.0(÷0.7–8.7)
Positive BC, n (%)c 65(13.9) 38(9.5) 4.4(0.1–8.7)
Gram-positive bacteria, n (%) 40(8.6) 11(2.8) 5.8(2.8–8.8)
Gram-negative bacteria, n (%) 37(7.7) 27(6.8) 0.9(÷2.5–4.4)
Polymicrobial infection, n (%) 12(2.6) 1(0.3) 2.3(0.8–3.8)
Escherichia coli, n (%) 21(4.5) 20(5.0) 0.5(÷2.4–3.4)
Klebsiella pneumoniae, n (%) 7(1.5) 2(0.5) 1.0(÷0.3–2.3)
Staphylococcus aureus, n (%) 7(1.5) 1(0.3) 1.2(÷0.02–2.40)
Streptococcus pneumoniae, n (%) 15(3.2) 4(1.0) 2.2(0.3–4.1)
Otherd 22(4.7) 11(2.8) 1.9(÷0.6–4.4)
Enterobacter cloacae, n (%) 6(1.3) 1(0.25) 1.05(÷0.1–2.2)
Fungal infections, n (%) 1(0.2) 0 0.2(÷0.2–0.6)
  1. AB antibiotic treatment, BC blood culture, CI confidence interval, IQR interquartile range, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, SIRS systemic inflammatory response syndrome
  2. aTime from admission to first blood culture obtained
  3. b22 missing time to AB (13 and 9 for SOFA and SIRS, respectively)
  4. cAt least one positive blood culture, and coagulase negative staphylococci excluded
  5. dOther: Acinetobacter lwoffii, Actinotignum schaalii, Aerococcus urinae, Bacteroides theraiotaomicron, Bacteroides vulgatus, Candida albicans, Citrobacter freundii, Clostridium ramosum, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Gemella morbillorum, Hemolytic streptococci, Klebsiella oxytoca, Micrococcus species, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcecens, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans