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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients screened using sepsis-3 and REWs with and without propensity matching

From: The Ramathibodi early warning score as a sepsis screening tool does not reduce the timing of antibiotic administration

Characteristics Total cohort Propensity matching
Sepsis-3 (N = 303) REWs (N = 176) p-value Sepsis-3 (N = 153) REWs (N = 153) p-value
Male gender,N(%) 135 (44.6%) 72 (40.9%) 0.325 71 (46.4%) 62 (40.5%) 0.299
Age (years), median (IQR) 72 (71–75) 71 (68–75) 0.962 71 (68–75) 71 (67–76) 0.693
Temperature (°C), median (IQR) 38.3 (38.2–38.6) 38.7 (38.5–38.8) 0.024 38.7 (38.6–39.0) 38.7 (38.6–38.9) 0.943
Heart rate (beats/min), median (IQR) 106 (103–108) 116 (113–120) < 0.001 112 (110–117) 116 (113–120) 0.357
Respiratory rate (breaths/min), median (IQR) 22 (22–24) 24 (24–28) 0.001 24 (24–26) 24 (24–28) 0.192
SBP (mmHg), median (IQR) 130 (126–135) 129 (122–133) 0.177 124 (118–135) 129 (122–133) 0.881
SpO2(%), median (IQR) 96 (96–97) 96 (95–97) 0.064 95 (94–96) 96 (95–97) 0.254
Altered mental status,N(%) 51 (16.8%) 47 (26.7%) 0.010 32 (20.9%) 36 (23.5%) 0.582
Comorbidities,N(%)
Cirrhosis 17 (5.6%) 4 (2.3%) 0.085 4 (2.5%) 4 (2.5%) 1.000
Diabetes mellitus 122 (40.3%) 53 (30.1%) 0.026 54 (35.3%) 51 (33.3%) 0.718
Hematological malignancy 19 (6.3%) 8 (4.5%) 0.430 8 (5.2%) 8 (5.2%) 1.000
Non-hematological malignancy 55 (18.2%) 37 (21%) 0.442 27 (17.6%) 32 (20.9%) 0.469
Transplantation 10 (3.3%) 5 (2.8%) 0.781 5 (3.3%) 4 (2.6%) 0.735
Immunocompromised 52 (18.2%) 37 (21%) 0.295 27 (17.6%) 32 (20.9%) 0.469
ESRD on RRT 24 (7.9%) 13 (7.4%) 0.833 8 (5.2%) 11 (7.2%) 0.477
HFrEF 9 (3.0%) 6 (3.4%) 0.790 5 (3.3%) 4 (2.6%) 0.735
COPD 44 (14.5%) 18 (10.2%) 0.177 22 (14.4%) 16 (10.5%) 0.298
Totally dependent for ADL 50 (16.5%) 46 (26.1%) 0.011 34 (22.2%) 36 (23.5%) 0.785
Site of infection
Respiratory system 120 (39.6%) 73 (41.5%) 0.687 58 (37.9%) 65 (42.5%) 0.414
Urinary tract 76 (25.1%) 36 (20.5%) 0.249 37 (24.2%) 32 (20.9%) 0.494
Gastrointestinal tract 43 (14.2%) 25 (14.2%) 0.997 22 (14.4%) 21 (13.7%) 0.869
CNS 15 (5.0%) 6 (3.4%) 0.427 6 (3.9%) 5 (3.3%) 0.759
Skin 12 (4.0%) 9 (5.1%) 0.552 5 (3.3%) 7 (4.6%) 0.556
CRBSI 3 (1.0%) 2 (1.1%) 0.879 3 (2.0%) 1 (0.7%) 0.314
Other 34 (11.2%) 25 (14.2%) 0.338 22 (14.4%) 22 (14.4%) 1.000
Lactate (mmol/L), IQR 2.10 (2.00–2.30) 2.35 (2.20–2.60) 0.001 2.20 (2.10–2.50) 2.30 (2.20–2.70) 0.342
qSOFA (IQR) 1 (1–2) 1 (1–2) < 0.001 1 (1–2) 1 (1–2) 0.735
REWs (IQR) 4 (4–5) 5 (5–6) < 0.001 5 (5–6) 5 (5–6) 0.730
  1. REWs Ramathibodi early warning score, IQR Interquartile range, RR Respiratory rate, SBP Systolic blood pressure, SpO2 Pulse oximetric saturation, ESRD on RRT End-stage renal disease on renal replacement therapy, HFrEF Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%), COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ADL Activities of daily living, CNS Central nervous system, CRBSI Catheter-related bloodstream infection, qSOFA Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment