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Table 4 The frequency of chronically used medications by hyperkalemia severity

From: Clinical and electrocardiogram presentations of patients with high serum potassium concentrations within emergency settings: a prospective study

Medications Hyperkalemia severity Chi-square, p-value (X2, degree of freedom)
Mild
(5.5–5.9 mmol/L)
(N=7)
N (%)
Moderate
(6-6.4 mmol/L)
(N=27)
N (%)
Severe
(≥6.5 mmol/L)
(N=33)
N (%)
ACEIs 2 (28.6) 7 (25.9) 12 (36.4) 0.677 (0.780, 2)
ARBs 4 (57.1) 6 (22.2) 9 (27.3) 0.185 (3.374, 2)
Beta-blockers 3 (42.9) 14 (51.9) 18 (54.5) 0.853 (0.319, 2)
CCBs 5 (71.4) 11 (40.7) 12 (36.4) 0.230 (2.939, 2)
Aspirin 4 (57.1) 15 (56.6) 15 (45.5) 0.693 (0.734, 2)
Other NSAIDs 0 (0.0) 2 (7.4) 0 (0.0) 0.217 (3.054, 2)
LMWH or unfractured heparin 2 (28.6) 1 (3.7) 2 (6.1) 0.076 (5.163, 2)
Warfarin 0 (0.0) 2 (7.4) 3 (9.1) 0.708 (0.691, 2)
PPIs 4 (57.1) 17 (63.0) 18 (54.5) 0.804 (0.436, 2)
Statins 4 (57.1) 18 (66.7) 21 (63.6) 0.892 (0.228, 2)
Metformin 0 (0.0) 5 (18.5) 7 (21.2) 0.411 (1.779, 2)
Insulin 5 (71.4) 10 (37.0) 8 (24.2) 0.054 (5.851, 2)
Levothyroxine 1 (14.3) 2 (7.4) 3 (9.1) 0.850 (0.324, 2)
Allopurinol 1 (14.3) 1 (3.7) 2 (6.1) 0.574 (1.110, 2)
Cortisol 1 (14.3) 2 (7.4) 2 (6.1) 0.754 (0.566, 2)
Loop diuretics 3 (42.9) 11 (40.7) 1 (33.3) 0.798 (0.451, 2)
Thiazide diuretics 1 (14.3) 3 (11.1) 3 (9.1) 0.910 (0.188, 2)
Potassium-sparing diuretics 0 (0.0) 1 (3.7) 2 (6.1) 0.756 (0.559, 2)
Digitalis 1 (14.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.0) 0.141 (3.918, 2)
Clopidogrel 0 (0.0) 5 (18.5) 3 (9.1) 0.314 (2.315, 2)
  1. Abbreviations: ACEIs Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ARBs Angiotensin-receptor blockers, CCBs Calcium channel blockers, NSAIDs Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, LMWH Low molecular weight heparin, PPIs Proton pump inhibitors