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Table 1 Distributions of symptoms, precipitating factors, age and previous history of syncope across various causes of syncope

From: Syncope: experience at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan

  Causes of syncope
Vasovagal (n = 126) Unknown (n = 64) Cardiogenic (n = 50) Orthostatic (n = 26) Psychogenic (n = 3)
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Symptoms
 Dizziness 87 (69) 40 (62) 23 (46) 12 (48) 3 (100)
 Visual symptoms 33 (26) 9 (14) 4 (8) 10 (20) 1 (33)
 Nausea 27 (21) 12 (18) 10 (20) 9 (33) 1 (33)
 Palpitation 23 (18) 12 (18) 10 (20) 9 (33) 1 (33)
 Sweating 26 (21) 11 (17) 6 (12) 6 (24) 1 (33)
 Chest pain 11 (9) 11 (09) 4 (08) 3 (12) 0 (0)
 Shortness of breath 13 (10) 5 (08) 14 (28) 1 (4) 0 (0)
Precipitating factors
 Defecation/micturition 28 (22) 11 (17) 9 (18) 3 (12) 1 (33)
 Exertion 18 (14) 12 (19) 7 (14) 3 (12) 1 (33)
 Office work 6 (5) 5 (8) 8 (16) 4 (15) 0 (0)
 Standing after sleep 14 (11) 6 (9) 7 (14) 6 (23) 0 (0)
 Eating 9 (7) 10 (16) 5 (10) 1 (4) 0 (0)
 Unknown 51 (40) 20 (31) 14 (28) 9 (35) 1 (33)
Age groups
 16–40 years (33/269) 23 (18) 5 (8) 1 (2) 3 (12) 1 (33)
 41–65 years (146/269) 71 (56) 37 (58) 22 (44) 14 (54) 2 (67)
 66 and above (90/269) 32 (25) 22 (34) 27 (54) 9 (34) 0 (0)
Previous history of syncope
 Yes 28 (22) 16 (25) 18 (36) 4 (15) 1 (33)
 No 98 (78) 48 (75) 32 (64) 22 (85) 2 (66)