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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate analysis of factors related to 100% compliance with the in the ED attainable goals of the resuscitation bundle of the “Surviving Sepsis Campaign”

From: Lack of clinically evident signs of organ failure affects ED treatment of patients with severe sepsis

Variable 6 goals <6 goals P univariate Corrected OR (95% CI) multivariate
No. (%) 77 (24) 246 (76)   
Patient-related factors     
Age 62 ± 17 68 ± 17 0.005 0.98 (0.95–1.00)*
Male sex 48 (62) 135 (55) 0.29  
Clinical signs     
Respiratory difficulty (28) 49 (64) 114 (46) 0.006 3.38 (1.08–10.64)
Hypotension <90 mmHg (2) 37 (48) 84 (34) 0.043 2.37 (1.07–5.23)
Altered mental status (15) 42 (55) 76 (31) <0.001 4.18 (1.92–9.09)
Febrile chills (30) 25 (32) 47 (19) 0.016  
Laboratory findings     
Lactate >4 (58) 26 (34) 74 (30) 0.41  
Urea >7.14 mmol/l (4) 50 (65) 184 (75) 0.102  
Thrombocytopenia (8) 23 (30) 44 (18) 0.036  
Illness severity     
Total PIRO score 12.9 ± 4.7 12.0 ± 4.9 0.149  
Total MEDS score 9.1 ± 3.8 8.7 ± 4.1 0.447  
Institution-related factors     
Academic (as opposed to urban) 46 (60) 58 (24) <0.001 3.16 (1.44–6.94)#
Time of ED presentation:     
8.00 a.m.–23.30 p.m. 58 (75) 173 (70)   
23.30 p.m.–8.00 a.m. 19 (25) 73 (30) 0.648  
Physician-related factors     
ED physician involved (19) 28 (36) 52 (21) 0.01  
Admitting specialty     
Medical (the rest being surgical) 72 (94) 232 (94) 0.776  
  1. Corrected OR (odds ratio, 95% confidence intervals) of >1 indicates that the factor is associated with higher odds of completing all goals. *OR per year increase of age. #OR compared to urban set as 1. Clinically evident and laboratory signs of organ failure were defined as in the PIRO score [17]. Liver dysfunction was not shown since it occurred in only three cases because of sepsis. Dutch EDs are not fully staffed with ED physicians. Number of missing data is indicated between brackets in first column. If not mentioned no data were missing. Abbreviations: ED, emergency department; PIRO, predisposition, infection, response, organ failure score; MEDS, mortality in ED sepsis; model calibration: P = 0.867.