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Table 1 Case reports of spinal epidural abscess formation following acupuncture published between 1998 and 2015

From: A rare case of multiple spinal epidural abscesses and cauda equina syndrome presenting to the emergency department following acupuncture

Reference Age, gender Spine level Signs and symptoms Pathogen Treatment
9 67, M C1-2 Fever, posterior nuchal and back pain No specific pathogen Antibiotics
10 64, M T11-L3 Severe back pain Escherichia coli Antibiotics
11 13, M L4-5 Severe back pain, fever No specific pathogen Antibiotics
12 47, M C1-3 Posterior nuchal pain and swelling No specific pathogen Antibiotics
13 19, M C2-6 Progressive neck stiffness and fever Group B Streptococcus Antibiotics
14 80, F C3-7, L3-5, L5-S1 Fever, progressive quadriparesis, difficulty voiding Staphylococcus aureus Surgical drainage + antibiotics
15 47, M L3-5 Fever, low back pain, right sciatica Serratia marcescens Surgical decompression + antibiotics
Current case 57, F C5-T1, L4-5 Posterior nuchal pain, inability to void, weakness in both lower limbs and left upper limb Staphylococcus aureus Surgical decompression + antibiotics