Skip to main content

Table 3 Weight estimation meta-analysis summary data, showing both fixed effects (FE) and random effects (RE) data

From: The accuracy of emergency weight estimation systems in children—a systematic review and meta-analysis

   Random effects outcomes Fixed effects outcomes
   MPE LLOA ULOA Studies N PW10 PW20 Studies N MPE LLOA ULOA Studies N PW10 PW20 Studies N
APLS (new) All 5.1 −42.5 52.6 8 19,029 33.6 56.1 13 49,709 6.1 −44.1 56.2 8 19,029 28.3 58.8 13 49,709
APLS (new) HIC 1.5 −49.7 52.8 5 17,318 33.7 56.1 9 46,709 5.8 −44.7 56.3 5 17,318 28.0 58.8 9 46,709
APLS (new) LMIC 10.9 −30.4 52.3 3 1711 33.4 50.6 4 3000 9.1 −37.2 55.4 3 1711 33.8 56.9 4 3000
ARC All −2.3 −41.6 37.1 6 6334 35.9 64.2 7 7405 −8.3 −50.5 33.8 6 6334 35.9 65.3 7 7405
ARC HIC −13.1 −49.3 23.2 3 4572 35.1 66.7 3 4572 −13.4 −50.1 23.2 3 4572 34.3 64.9 3 4572
ARC LMIC 8.6 −34.0 51.1 3 1762 36.5 62.4 4 2833 4.9 −39.4 49.2 3 1762 38.6 65.9 4 2833
Argall formula All 4.9 −43.0 52.8 7 145,823 31.5 51.1 10 147,341 −4.7 −47.3 37.9 7 145,823 38.7 63.1 10 147,341
Argall formula HIC −1.3 −47.4 44.7 5 144,691 34.7 54.3 7 145,257 −4.8 −47.2 37.6 5 144,691 38.9 63.2 7 145,257
Argall formula LMIC 20.5 −32.1 73.1 2 1132 24.1 46.8 3 2084 14.3 −37.4 66.1 2 1132 28.4 54.1 3 2084
Best Guess formula All 12.0 −32.4 56.3 13 284,798 33.8 58.2 18 324,035 5.8 −35.2 46.8 13 284,798 39.2 65.1 18 324,035
Best Guess formula HIC 6.8 −35.7 49.3 9 277,790 37.7 63.5 14 318,478 5.5 −35.2 46.1 9 277,790 39.5 65.3 14 318,478
Best Guess formula LMIC 23.6 −24.9 72.1 4 7008 20.2 46.4 4 5557 19.3 −25.5 64.1 4 7008 21.9 58.5 4 5557
CAWR-1 All −3.3 −45.4 38.9 4 9064 34.6 65.7 5 10,016 −5.2 −48.2 37.7 4 9064 34.4 65.2 5 10,016
CAWR-1 HIC −5.6 −47.1 35.9 3 8101 34.1 68.1 3 8101 −6.3 −48.6 36.0 3 8101 34.2 65.9 3 8101
CAWR-1 LMIC 3.9 −40.4 48.2 1 963 35.5 62.0 2 1915 3.9 −40.4 48.2 1 963 35.5 62.0 2 1915
CAWR-2 All 1.2 −38.6 40.9 3 4384 41.4 76.2 3 4384 −1.0 −42.1 40.0 3 4384 42.2 76.3 3 4384
CAWR-2 HIC −2.2 −41.2 36.8 2 3501 41.7 79.0 2 3501 −3.3 −43.1 36.5 2 3501 42.6 77.7 2 3501
CAWR-2 LMIC 7.9 −33.3 49.1 1 883 40.7 70.8 1 883 7.9 −33.3 49.1 1 883 40.7 70.8 1 883
EPLS formula All −9.1 −48.8 30.6 27 351,449 35.9 63.0 36 190,580 −14.2 −56.1 27.7 27 351,449 33.8 56.6 36 190,580
EPLS formula HIC −13.1 −53.1 26.9 20 344,221 34.7 61.0 27 185,925 −14.5 −56.4 27.4 20 344,221 33.5 56.0 27 185,925
EPLS formula LMIC 2.3 −36.4 40.9 7 7228 39.7 68.0 9 4655 −1.9 −39.1 35.2 7 7228 46.3 71.8 9 4655
Garwood formula All 11.8 −38.9 62.5 2 1390 31.8 58.3 3 2461 10.7 −38.3 59.6 2 1390 30.6 57.3 3 2461
Garwood formula HIC 9.2 −36.5 54.9 1 996 35.3 65.9 1 996 9.2 −36.5 54.9 1 996 35.3 65.9 1 996
Garwood formula LMIC 14.4 −41.3 70.1 1 394 30.1 54.5 2 1465 14.4 −41.3 70.1 1 394 27.5 51.5 2 1465
Leffler formula All 0.6 −42.8 44.0 10 270,349 32.6 57.4 11 271,373 −1.5 −40.1 37.2 10 270,349 43.8 69.3 11 271,373
Leffler formula HIC −3.7 −45.6 38.2 8 269,130 35.9 62.0 8 269,130 −1.5 −40.1 37.0 8 269,130 43.9 69.5 8 269,130
Leffler formula LMIC 17.8 −31.6 67.1 2 1219 23.7 45.2 3 2243 11.8 −36.7 60.3 2 1219 27.8 52.3 3 2243
Luscombe formula All 8.2 −34.5 50.9 15 237,568 34.0 58.1 21 275,841 0.4 −41.5 42.4 15 237,568 38.7 67.1 21 275,841
Luscombe formula HIC 4.7 −36.3 45.8 11 231,881 38.3 64.7 15 269,554 0.2 −41.6 41.9 11 231,881 39.0 68.0 15 269,554
Luscombe formula LMIC 17.7 −29.5 65.0 4 5687 23.1 46.2 6 6287 11.8 −33.7 57.2 4 5687 27.1 54.2 6 6287
Nelson formula All 4.7 −33.6 42.9 9 134,315 36.8 61.9 10 135,339 −9.1 −38.6 20.5 9 134,315 42.0 73.7 10 135,339
Nelson formula HIC −6.7 −39.3 25.9 4 128,844 36.6 59.7 5 129,173 −9.8 −38.0 18.3 4 128,844 42.1 73.9 5 129,173
Nelson formula LMIC 13.8 −29.0 56.5 5 5471 37.0 63.7 5 6166 8.9 −30.3 48.0 5 5471 40.9 70.1 5 6166
Park formula All 5.9 −35.4 47.2 2 125,170 36.9 64.3 4 126,788 1.0 −34.8 36.8 2 125,170 41.5 72.4 4 126,788
Park formula HIC 0.9 −34.8 36.6 1 124,095 43.4 74.2 2 124,332 0.9 −34.8 36.6 1 124,095 41.7 72.8 2 124,332
Park formula LMIC 10.9 −35.9 57.7 1 1075 30.5 54.5 2 2456 10.9 −35.9 57.7 1 1075 29.4 53.0 2 2456
Shann formula All −2.7 −49.1 43.8 7 107,890 35.8 60.5 9 111,266 −8.5 −41.9 24.9 7 107,890 40.2 70.9 9 111,266
Shann formula HIC −8.3 −53.2 36.5 4 106,150 37.2 62.1 5 108,455 −8.7 −41.6 24.3 4 106,150 40.3 71.1 5 108,455
Shann formula LMIC 4.9 −43.7 53.5 3 1740 34.1 58.9 4 2811 3.4 −45.5 52.2 3 1740 35.5 61.2 4 2811
Theron formula All 33.2 −47.9 114.2 5 4606 17.6 38.4 8 6362 29.4 −65.2 124.0 5 4606 18.8 13.5 8 6362
Theron formula HIC 28.4 −54.5 111.3 3 3272 20.0 44.6 4 3577 27.8 −73.0 128.6 3 3272 18.8 13.5 4 3577
Theron formula LMIC 40.3 −38.0 118.6 2 1334 15.2 32.2 4 2785 33.3 −43.7 110.4 2 1334 18.7 13.5 4 2785
Parental estimate All −3.6 −27.3 20.2 3 561 69.8 87.1 10 3070 −3.2 −24.9 18.4 3 561 78.1 89.8 10 3070
Parental estimate HIC −3.6 −27.3 20.2 3 561 68.0 87.1 9 2475 −3.2 −24.9 18.4 3 561 76.4 89.8 9 2475
Parental estimate LMIC     0   85.2   1 595     0   85.2 595 1  
Healthcare provider guesses All −2.5 −51.7 46.8 3 547 35.6 59.3 5 1719 −2.8 −49.1 43.4 3 547 40.3 58.1 5 1719
Healthcare provider guesses HIC −2.5 −51.7 46.8 3 547 35.6 59.3 5 1719 −2.8 −49.1 43.4 3 547 40.3 58.1 5 1719
Healthcare provider guesses LMIC     0     0      0     0  
Finger counting All     0   53.8 83.4 2 4385 0.1 −34.0 34.2 0 4178 49.1 80.0 2 4385
Finger counting HIC     0   53.8 83.4 2 4385 0.1 −34.0 34.2 0 4178 49.1 80.0 2 4385
Finger counting LMIC     0     0   0.1 −34.0 34.2 0 4178    0  
Traub-Johnson formula All −0.8 −29.5 27.9 4 3561 45.9 74.8 4 3561 −3.2 −34.3 27.9 4 3561 48.8 75.2 4 3561
Traub-Johnson formula HIC −7.1 −35.9 21.7 2 2126 46.6 74.9 2 2126 −7.1 −37.4 23.2 2 2126 45.7 71.3 2 2126
Traub-Johnson formula LMIC 5.5 −23.2 34.1 2 1435 45.2 74.7 2 1435 2.6 −26.4 31.5 2 1435 53.4 81.1 2 1435
Traub-Kichen formula All −2.0 −31.0 27.1 4 3455 45.4 74.4 4 3455 −4.8 −36.5 26.8 4 3455 48.5 74.4 4 3455
Traub-Kichen formula HIC −8.5 −38.2 21.2 2 2121 45.5 72.9 2 2121 −9.1 −39.8 21.6 2 2121 45.4 69.6 2 2121
Traub-Kichen formula LMIC 4.6 −23.8 33.0 2 1334 45.3 75.9 2 1334 2.0 −26.4 30.4 2 1334 53.6 82.1 2 1334
MAC formula All 6.7 −23.3 36.6 4 458,019 29.6 52.8 6 459,120 4.6 −16.0 25.3 4 458,019 28.0 58.0 6 459,120
MAC formula HIC 7.4 −25.8 40.5 3 4029 29.3 51.5 4 4353 9.7 −29.4 48.9 3 4029 34.0 60.4 4 4353
MAC formula LMIC 4.6 −15.8 25.0 1 453,990 30.1 58.0 2 454,767 4.6 −15.8 25.0 1 453,990 27.9 58.0 2 454,767
DWEM All −1.1 −26.3 24.1 2 884 57.8 87.6 3 1142 −0.9 −26.2 24.4 2 884 57.7 88.0 3 1142
DWEM HIC −1.1 −26.3 24.1 2 884 57.8 87.6 3 1142 −0.9 −26.2 24.4 2 884 57.7 88.0 3 1142
DWEM LMIC     0     0      0     0  
PAWPER tape All −0.2 −16.3 16.0 5 15,913 78.0 96.6 7 15,159 −1.0 −18.4 16.4 5 15,913 81.3 97.8 7 15,159
PAWPER tape HIC −0.8 −19.3 17.7 3 15,160 73.8 95.2 5 14,406 −1.0 −18.7 16.6 3 15,160 80.9 97.8 5 14,406
PAWPER tape LMIC 0.8 −11.8 13.4 2 753 88.6 98.6 2 753 0.6 −12.0 13.3 2 753 88.7 98.7 2 753
Mercy method All −1.7 −19.5 16.2 8 5443 70.9 95.3 9 5642 −1.0 −19.7 17.7 8 5443 73.7 96.1 9 5642
Mercy method HIC −3.1 −20.9 14.8 5 4296 69.4 96.5 6 4495 −1.5 −20.2 17.1 5 4296 73.8 97.0 6 4495
Mercy method LMIC 0.7 −17.2 18.7 3 1147 73.8 94.1 3 1147 0.9 −17.3 19.2 3 1147 73.2 93.6 3 1147
Wozniak method All −3.8 −36.1 28.5 2 628 72.1   2   −3.8 −36.3 28.6 2 628 74.9   2 1405
Wozniak method HIC     0     0      0     0  
Wozniak method LMIC −3.8 −36.1 28.5 2 628 72.1   2   −3.8 −36.3 28.6 2 628 74.9   2 1405
Broselow tape All −1.5 −29.1 26.2 36 625,559 55.6 81.2 53 779,711 2.1 −20.6 24.9 36 625,559 61.7 91.2 53 779,711
Broselow tape HIC −3.9 −32.0 24.2 25 164,714 56.7 83.4 41 316,853 −4.7 −27.9 18.6 25 164,714 60.2 91.4 41 316,853
Broselow tape LMIC 4.4 −25.9 34.7 11 462,079 52.0 76.3 12 462,530 4.6 −16.0 25.2 11 462,079 62.7 78.5 12 462,530
  1. Data for the whole pooled sample as well as pooled data for high-income country (HIC) and low- and middle-income country (LMIC) populations are shown separately. There were very few substantial differences between the fixed effects and random effects analyses, which were not substantial enough to affect the overall outcomes. The number of studies in each pooled sample, as well as the number of data points is shown. A positive mean percentage error indicates an overestimation of weight, while a negative value indicates an underestimation of weight. Abbreviations: MPE mean percentage error, LLOA lower limit of agreement, ULOA upper limit of agreement, PW10 percentage of weight estimates within 10% of actual weight, PW20 percentage of weight estimates within 20% of actual weight