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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with traumatic OHCA presenting to five major hospitals of Karachi

From: Characteristics of traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients presenting to major centers in Karachi, Pakistan—a longitudinal cohort study

Characteristics n (%)
Age in years, mean (SD), range 18–70  years 35.1 (11.1)
 18–35 113 (60.4)
 36–54 60 (32.1)
 55–70 14 (7.5)
Gender
 Men 178 (95.2)
 Women 9 (4.8)
Type of trauma
 Blunt 58 (31.0)
 Penetrating 128 (68.4)
Cause of arrest
 Gunshot 127 (68.3)
 RTA 45 (24.2)
 Fall 5 (2.7)
 Crushed 1 (0.5)
 Violence with a blunt object 6 (3.2)
 Bomb blast victim 1 (0.5)
 Burn 1 (0.5)
 Unknown cause 1 (0.5)
Site of arrest
 Residence 14 (7.5)
 Public 173 (92.5)
Type of witness
 Lay person 59 (31.6)
 Health care provider 1 (0.5)
 Family 42 (22.5)
 EMS 2 (1.1)
 None 83 (44.6)
Type of pre-hospital transportation
 Ambulance with life support 6 (3.2)
 Ambulance without life support 150 (80.2)
 Non-EMS 31 (16.6)
First assessed rhythm
 Shockable 0 (0)
 Non-shockable 140 (74.9)
 Not recorded 47 (25.1)
Time to reach hospital, median (IQR) 30.0 (20,40)
Outcomes on arrival at ED
 Alive 6 (3.2)
 Declared dead 181 (96.8)
Median survival time (IQR) 35.0 (23.0, 51.0)
Destination hospital
 Public 185 (98.9)
 Private 2 (1.1)
Life-saving interventions
 Pre-hospital 3 (1.6)
 Hospital 7 (3.7)
 None 177 (94.7)
CPR
 Pre-hospital 2 (1.1)
 Hospital 6 (3.2)
 None 179 (95.7)
Time to the first life-support intervention, median (IQR), range 7–58 min
n = 10
30 (13.2, 33.5)
EMS scene time, median (IQR), range 0–8 min
n = 156
2 (1,3)
EMS response time, median (IQR), range 0–20 min
n = 156
3 (1,6.7)
  1. SD standard deviation, RTA road traffic accident, OHCA out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, EMS emergency medical services, IQR interquartile range, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ED emergency department