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Table 1 Patients’ characteristics

From: The association between intravenous fluid resuscitation and mortality in older emergency department patients with suspected infection

  Total cohort
N = 2659
< 70 years
N = 1678
≥ 70 years
N = 981
p value
Patient demographics
 Age, mean (SD) 62.1 (17.1) 52.5 (13.6) 78.7 (6.3) 0,000
 Sex, n (%)
  Female 1143 (43.0) 766 (45.6) 377 (38.4) 0.000
  Male 1516 (57.0) 912 (54.4) 604 (61.6)  
Comorbidities, n (%)
 COPD (2) 416 (15.6) 185 (11.0) 231 (23.5) 0.000
 Heart disease (1) 432 (16.1) 156 (9.3) 276 (28.1) 0.000
 Kidney disease (1) 494 (18.5) 282 (16.8) 212 (21.6) 0.002
 Liver disease 125 (4.7) 102 (6.1) 23 (2.3) 0.000
 Malignancy 280 (10.5) 173 (10.3) 107 (10.9) 0.628
 Metastatic malignancy 37 (13.9) 256 (15.3) 117 (11.9) 0.017
Triage category (2), n (%)     0.174
 Blue 2 (0.1) 0 2 (0.2)  
 Green 7 (0.3) 5 (0.3) 2 (0.2)  
 Yellow 1233 (46.4) 780 (46.5) 453 (46.2)  
 Orange 1365 (51.3) 866 (51.6) 499 (50.9)  
 Red 50 (1.9) 26 (1.5) 24 (2.4)  
Suspected site of infection, n (%)
 Lungs 1319 (49.3%) 736 (43.9) 583 (59.4) 0.000
 Urogenital tract 797 (29.8) 453 (27.0) 344 (35.1) 0.000
 Abdomen 459 (17.2) 305 (18.2) 154 (15.7) 0.306
 Skin 245 (9.2) 165 (9.8) 80 (8.2) 0.239
 CNS 68 (2.5) 47 (2.8) 21 (2.1) 0.369
 Other 432 (16.1) 323 (19.3) 109 (11.1) 0.000
Vital signs*
 Respiratory rate, mean (SD) (590) 24 (7) 23 (7) 26 (7) 0.158
 Heart rate, mean (SD) (46) 108 (20) 111 (19) 103 (20) 0.112
 MAP, median (IQR) (247) 94 (83–105) 94 (84–105) 94 (84–105) 0.528
 Systolic BP, median (IQR) (29) 130 (115–149) 129 (115–145) 135 (115–154) 0.000
Disease severity, median (IQR)
 PIRO score 10 (6–14) 8 (4–12) 13 (9–16) 0.000
 Lactate (mmol/L) (286) 1.8 (1.4–0.6) 1.80 (1.4–2.5) 1.90 (1.4–2.7) 0.023
 Total amount of fluids received (L) (6) 1.00 (0.5–1.5) 1.00 (0.5–1.5) 1.05 (0.5–1.5) 0.128
 Supplemental oxygen (L/min)** (78) 2 (0–5) 2 (0–4) 3 (1–5) 0.000
 Mortality, n (%) 172 (6.5) 75 (4.5) 97 (9.9) 0.000
  1. Data are presented as mean (SD), when normally distributed, or as median (IQR) if rightly skewed. Categorical data were presented as number (%). The two age cohorts were compared using the unpaired t test, Kruskal-Wallis test, or chi-square test depending on the variable. The significance was presented by the p value. The number between brackets indicate the amount of missing variables
  2. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CNS central nervous system, MAP mean arterial pressure, BP blood pressure, PIRO Predisposition, Infection, Response, Organ failure, SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range
  3. *Vital signs registered before treatment at emergency department
  4. **The maximum amount of oxygen that was administered at the emergency department