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Table 1 Patient demographics “encounter-level”

From: Evaluating the impact of emergency department crowding on disposition patterns and outcomes of discharged patients

  Overall Admission No admission p value
Female (n, %) 50,609 (45.4%) 19,895 (48.6%) 30,714 (43.5%) < .0001
Race (n, %)
 White/Caucasian 84,095 (75.4%) 32,663 (79.8%) 51,432 (72.9%) < .0001
 Black/African American 18,674 (16.7%) 5981 (14.6%) 12,693 (18.0%)  
 Asian 3490 (3.1%) 842 (2.1%) 2648 (3.8%)  
 Other/unknown 5268 (4.7%) 1456 (3.6%) 3812 (5.4%)  
Age category (years) (n, %)
 0–24 17,772 (15.9%) 2611 (6.4%) 15,161 (21.5%) < .0001
 25–44 34,428 (30.9%) 8454 (20.6%) 25,974 (36.8%)  
 45–64 35,825 (32.1%) 15,440 (37.7%) 20,385 (28.9%)  
 65–84 11,993 (10.8%) 7064 (17.3%) 4929 (7.0%)  
 85+ 11,509 (10.3%) 7373 (18.0%) 4136 (5.9%)  
Acuity level (n, %)
 Resuscitation 1290 (1.2%) 1210 (3.0%) 80 (0.1%) < .0001
 Emergent 45,619 (40.9%) 25,167 (61.5%) 20,452 (29.0%)  
 Urgent 51,489 (46.2%) 14,178 (34.6%) 37,311 (52.9%)  
 Non-urgent 11,960 (10.7%) 378 (0.9%) 11,582 (16.4%)  
 Minor 1169 (1.0%) 9 (0.0%) 1160 (1.6%)  
Primary payer (n, %)
 BCBS 44,191 (39.6%) 13,563 (33.1%) 30,628 (43.4%) < .0001
 Commercial 25,308 (22.7%) 7288 (17.8%) 18,020 (25.5%)  
 Medicaid 4805 (4.3%) 2120 (5.2%) 2685 (3.8%)  
 Medicare 27,754 (24.9%) 16,343 (39.9%) 11,411 (16.2%)  
 Military 536 (0.5%) 201 (0.5%) 335 (0.5%)  
 Self-Pay 7816 (7.0%) 1238 (3.0%) 6578 (9.3%)  
 Workers comp 1117 (1.0%) 189 (0.5%) 928 (1.3%)  
Arrival day (n, %)
 Sunday 14,717 (13.2%) 4926 (12.0%) 9791 (13.9%) < .0001
 Monday 17,495 (15.7%) 6729 (16.4%) 10,766 (15.3%)  
 Tuesday 16,106 (14.4%) 6008 (14.7%) 10,098 (14.3%)  
 Wednesday 15,974 (14.3%) 6128 (15.0%) 9846 (13.9%)  
 Thursday 15,725 (14.1%) 5905 (14.4%) 9820 (13.9%)  
 Friday 16,577 (14.9%) 6269 (15.3%) 10,308 (14.6%)  
 Saturday 14,933 (13.4%) 4977 (12.2%) 9956 (14.1%)  
Arrival season (n, %)
 Spring 18,696 (16.8%) 7046 (17.2%) 11,650 (16.5%) 0.004
 Summer 35,128 (31.5%) 12,684 (31.0%) 22,444 (31.8%)  
 Autumn 33,537 (30.1%) 12,351 (30.2%) 21,186 (30.0%)  
 Winter 24,166 (21.7%) 8861 (21.6%) 15,305 (21.7%)  
Charlson index (mean, std) 0.6 (0.9) 0.9 (1.1) 0.4 (0.7) < .0001
Number of denials arrival day (mean, std) 1.5 (1.9) 1.5 (1.9) 1.4 (1.9) 0.058
Boarders at disposition hour (n, %) 50,943 (45.7%) 19,907 (48.6%) 31,036 (44.0%) < .0001