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Table 2 Demographics (encounter-level)—stratified to with boarders only

From: Evaluating the impact of emergency department crowding on disposition patterns and outcomes of discharged patients

  Overall Admission No admission p value
Female (n, %) 22,575 (44.3%) 9519 (47.8%) 13,056 (42.1%) < .0001
Race (n, %)
 White/Caucasian 38,552 (75.7%) 15,903 (79.9%) 22,649 (73.0%) < .0001
 Black/African American 8559 (16.8%) 2911 (14.6%) 5648 (18.2%)  
 Asian 1479 (2.9%) 393 (2.0%) 1086 (3.5%)  
 Other/unknown 2353 (4.6%) 700 (3.5%) 1653 (5.3%)  
Age category (years) (n, %)
 0–24 7338 (14.4%) 1192 (6.0%) 6146 (19.8%) < .0001
 25–44 15,508 (30.4%) 3950 (19.8%) 11,558 (37.2%)  
 45–64 16,670 (32.7%) 7552 (37.9%) 9118 (29.4%)  
 65–84 5796 (11.4%) 3543 (17.8%) 2253 (7.3%)  
 85+ 5631 (11.1%) 3670 (18.4%) 1961 (6.3%)  
Acuity level (n, %)
 Resuscitation 567 (1.1%) 534 (2.7%) 33 (0.1%) < .0001
 Emergent 21,673 (42.5%) 12,388 (62.2%) 9285 (29.9%)  
 Urgent 23,453 (46.0%) 6819 (34.3%) 16,634 (53.6%)  
 Non-urgent 4810 (9.4%) 163 (0.8%) 4647 (15.0%)  
 Minor 440 (0.9%) 3 (0.0%) 437 (1.4%)  
Primary payer (n, %)
 BCBS 19,897 (39.1%) 6464 (32.5%) 13,433 (43.3%) < .0001
 Commercial 11,260 (22.1%) 3509 (17.6%) 7751 (25.0%)  
 Medicaid 2237 (4.4%) 1034 (5.2%) 1203 (3.9%)  
 Medicare 13,422 (26.3%) 8146 (40.9%) 5276 (17.0%)  
 Military 250 (0.5%) 100 (0.5%) 150 (0.5%)  
 Self-Pay 3345 (6.6%) 552 (2.8%) 2793 (9.0%)  
 Workers comp 532 (1.0%) 102 (0.5%) 430 (1.4%)  
Arrival day (n, %)
 Sunday 1009 (2.0%) 364 (1.8%) 645 (2.1%) < .0001
 Monday 7575 (14.9%) 3139 (15.8%) 4436 (14.3%)  
 Tuesday 9714 (19.1%) 3764 (18.9%) 5950 (19.2%)  
 Wednesday 10,080 (19.8%) 3963 (19.9%) 6117 (19.7%)  
 Thursday 9924 (19.5%) 3824 (19.2%) 6100 (19.7%)  
 Friday 9563 (18.8%) 3756 (18.9%) 5807 (18.7%)  
 Saturday 3078 (6.0%) 1097 (5.5%) 1981 (6.4%)  
Arrival season (n, %)
 Spring 9820 (19.3%) 3981 (20.0%) 5839 (18.8%) 0.006
 Summer 12,796 (25.1%) 4897 (24.6%) 7899 (25.5%)  
 Autumn 15,938 (31.3%) 6208 (31.2%) 9730 (31.4%)  
 Winter 12,389 (24.3%) 4821 (24.2%) 7568 (24.4%)  
Charlson index (mean, std) 0.6 (0.9) 0.9 (1.1) 0.4 (0.7) < .0001
Number of denials arrival day (mean, std) 2.1 (2.1) 2.1 (2.1) 2.1 (2.1) < .0001