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Table 3 Demographics (encounter-level)—stratified to without boarders only

From: Evaluating the impact of emergency department crowding on disposition patterns and outcomes of discharged patients

  Overall Admission No admission p value
Female (n, %) 28,034 (46.3%) 10,376 (49.3%) 17,658 (44.6%) < .0001
Race (n, %)
 White/Caucasian 45,543 (75.2%) 16,760 (79.7%) 28,783 (72.8%) < .0001
 Black/African American 10,115 (16.7%) 3070 (14.6%) 7045 (17.8%)  
 Asian 2011 (3.3%) 449 (2.1%) 1562 (3.9%)  
 Other/unknown 2915 (4.8%) 756 (3.6%) 2159 (5.5%)  
Age category (years) (n, %)
 0–24 10,434 (17.2%) 1419 (6.7%) 9015 (22.8%) < .0001
 25–44 18,920 (31.2%) 4504 (21.4%) 14,416 (36.5%)  
 45–64 19,155 (31.6%) 7888 (37.5%) 11,267 (28.5%)  
 65–84 6197 (10.2%) 3521 (16.7%) 2676 (6.8%)  
 85+ 5878 (9.7%) 3703 (17.6%) 2175 (5.5%)  
Acuity level (n, %)
 Resuscitation 723 (1.2%) 676 (3.2%) 47 (0.1%) < .0001
 Emergent 23,946 (39.5%) 12,779 (60.8%) 11,167 (28.2%)  
 Urgent 28,036 (46.3%) 7359 (35.0%) 20,677 (52.3%)  
 Non-urgent 7150 (11.8%) 215 (1.0%) 6935 (17.5%)  
 Minor 729 (1.2%) 6 (0.0%) 723 (1.8%)  
Primary payer (n, %)
 BCBS 24,294 (40.1%) 7099 (33.7%) 17,195 (43.5%) < .0001
 Commercial 14,048 (23.2%) 3779 (18.0%) 10,269 (26.0%)  
 Medicaid 2568 (4.2%) 1086 (5.2%) 1482 (3.7%)  
 Medicare 14,332 (23.7%) 8197 (39.0%) 6135 (15.5%)  
 Military 286 (0.5%) 101 (0.5%) 185 (0.5%)  
 Self-Pay 4471 (7.4%) 686 (3.3%) 3785 (9.6%)  
 Workers comp 585 (1.0%) 87 (0.4%) 498 (1.3%)  
Arrival day (n, %)
 Sunday 13,708 (22.6%) 4562 (21.7%) 9146 (23.1%) < .0001
 Monday 9920 (16.4%) 3590 (17.1%) 6330 (16.0%)  
 Tuesday 6392 (10.6%) 2244 (10.7%) 4148 (10.5%)  
 Wednesday 5894 (9.7%) 2165 (10.3%) 3729 (9.4%)  
 Thursday 5801 (9.6%) 2081 (9.9%) 3720 (9.4%)  
 Friday 7014 (11.6%) 2513 (11.9%) 4501 (11.4%)  
 Saturday 11,855 (19.6%) 3880 (18.4%) 7975 (20.2%)  
Arrival season (n, %)
 Spring 8876 (14.7%) 3065 (14.6%) 5811 (14.7%) 0.677
 Summer 22,332 (36.9%) 7787 (37.0%) 14,545 (36.8%)  
 Autumn 17,599 (29.0%) 6143 (29.2%) 11,456 (29.0%)  
 Winter 11,777 (19.4%) 4040 (19.2%) 7737 (19.6%)  
Charlson index (mean, std) 0.5 (0.9) 0.9 (1.0) 0.3 (0.7) < .0001
Number of denials arrival day (mean, std) 0.9 (1.5) 0.9 (1.6) 0.9 (1.5) 0.183