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Table 1 Overview of breadth of dossier topics found in the IFEM ED Crowding and Access Block Task Force report

From: The International Federation for Emergency Medicine report on emergency department crowding and access block: a brief summary

Dossier topic
Background
 Evidence base for effects of crowding
 Financial and human costs of crowding
 Metrics
 International experience
 Case studies and patient voices
Patient flow
 Emergency medical services (prehospital services) offload
 Input and demand management
 Throughput
 Output and boarding
Management
 Leadership
 Legal risks and regulatory violations
 Policy
 Advocacy
 Early lessons from COVID-19 and disaster medicine