Skip to main content

Table 1 Risks associated with the initial response system

From: EMS operation in a female restricted university, Saudi prospective



Initial response was provided by untrained personnel

Response was carried on by security personnel and volunteers who are not BLS trained, without any medical background

Difficult access

Only certain gates had service elevators that could accommodate stretchers

Permit is needed for the access to be opened during working hours

Entry to the colleges is restricted; only students, faculty, and administrative staff are able to enter the premises

Initially, even hospital personnel had to obtain official access permits, for which the process may take up to 2 weeks

Lack of onsite medical response

The university medical center served patients on site only, with no response to any cases outside the clinics

Lack of medical response equipment

The campus lacks AEDs; some buildings had first-aid bags which comprised bandages and band-aids

  1. AED, automated external defibrillator