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Table 1 Risks associated with the initial response system

From: EMS operation in a female restricted university, Saudi prospective

Risks Details
Initial response was provided by untrained personnel Response was carried on by security personnel and volunteers who are not BLS trained, without any medical background
Difficult access Only certain gates had service elevators that could accommodate stretchers
Permit is needed for the access to be opened during working hours Entry to the colleges is restricted; only students, faculty, and administrative staff are able to enter the premises
Initially, even hospital personnel had to obtain official access permits, for which the process may take up to 2 weeks
Lack of onsite medical response The university medical center served patients on site only, with no response to any cases outside the clinics
Lack of medical response equipment The campus lacks AEDs; some buildings had first-aid bags which comprised bandages and band-aids
  1. AED, automated external defibrillator