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Table 2 ETDHKL pre-restructuring triage criteria

From: Impact of a binary triage system and structural reorganization of emergency department on health care workers exposed to suspected COVID-19 patients—a single-centre analysis

Treatment zones

Triage criteria

Red zone

(Critical zone I )

• Cardiac arrest

• Respiratory arrest

• Compromised Airway (A), Breathing (B) or Circulation (C)—need immediate lifesaving procedures.

• Apply to all cases

a. Any cases involving airway compromise, triage to red zone

b. Any cases involving two or more systems with or without airway compromise, triage to red zone

Amber zone

(Critical zone II )

• Stable airway

• Patients requiring oxygen support including non-invasive ventilation (NIV)

• Patients that require fluid resuscitation including patients in compensated shock with or without inotropic support

Yellow zone

(Semi-critical zone)

Patients with stable airway, breathing and circulation but in moderate pain and unable to ambulate.

Green zone

(Non-critical zone)

• Patients with stable airway, breathing, circulation and no alteration of mental status.

• Ambulating unaided or with a wheelchair.

• Green zone patients are further divided into sub-categories:

a. Green category 1 (Fast lane) – seen less than 10 min

b. Green category 2 (require initial management /first aid treatment before seen by a doctor)

c. Green category 3 (other than the above)

Decontamination room

• Can accommodate any patient with haemodynamic compromise including those requiring intubation and resuscitation.

• All highly infectious diseases

a. Meningococcaemia

b. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus

c. Ebola

d. Diphtheria

e. Measles

• All high lethality environmental toxin exposure

a. Paraquat

b. Organophosphate

• All HAZMAT cases - Hazardous materials including exposure to chemicals, nuclear waste products, biological and radiological agent

  1. Source: ETDHKL Triage Manual